jeudi, juillet 27, 2006

How to liberate Cambodia...

News From Cambodia N° 0631E


Khemara Jati
Montréal, Québec
July 27th, 2006

Ta Mok died. He died of what? His close relatives say that Ta Mok was in good health before the court was materialized. They asked in vain that Ta Mok should suitably took care outside the prison. Who has interest in his death? Who is the murderer? Did not the famous “Court” become a sinister farce?

The whole world knows that Ta Mok was a war chief. Everybody knows that Ta Mok is not a man who keeps his tongue in his pocket. Such a man is a danger for who ? Who has the interest of his death ?

On the international level, there is in The Hague (Netherlands) the “International Court of Justice” created in 1946 as the main UN judiciary organ. The International Court of Justice judged that Preah Vihear belongs to Cambodia.

There are also the “International Penal Courts” created by the UN Security Council in 1999, to judge the generalized and organized massacres etc. Stemming of these “International Penal Courts”, there is an “International Penal Court for former-Yugoslavia” (IPCY), then there is an “International Penal Court for Rwanda” (IPCR).

The IPCY discredited itself after the death of the main accused person Slobodan Milosevic in his prison. On the legal level, a court is always responsible for the life as well as for the death of a charged during his incarceration.

So the “Court to judge the Khmer Rouge leaders” is completely responsible for the death of Ta Mok. Duch is the only accused who still stays in prison. Does not he risk his life if he decides to say anything against the orders of the regime in place? Who feels safe in the current prisons under this regime? Which witness can feel safe? Even outside prisons? Why so incensed to organize such a so-called “Court” pretending at the international standards in a country ravaged by corruption, with judges in the orders of the power in place and with an Order of the Lawyers which does not respect the democratic elections ?

After the suspect death of Ta Mok this “Court” with the heavy costs does not already become a sinister farce? Such a “Tribunal” already moribund and a born dying person.

Who has interest in this “Court” ? Those who finance this “Court” ? Can this “Tribunal” makes any judgment against the interests of those who pay for it ?

Is the famous “Court to judge some Khmer Rouge dying person leaders” allowing Cambodian people to see the end of the ignorance, the disease, the misery and the Vietnamese domination? We reproduce below the article published in Cambodia Daily of July 5th, 2006, showing the Cambodian people opinion for this “Court”:

In the capital, Little Enthusiasm Found For Tribunal
By Thet Sambath and Erik Wasson.
A day after the Khmer Rouge tribunal judges and prosecutors swore their oath of office at the Royal Palace, reaction to the historic event appeared muted in Phnom Penh, and several residents questioned whether the tribunal would accomplish its mission of bringing justice for those killed from 1975 to 1979.
Mok Say Vibol, 48, a bookseller who lost 10 family members, said people were generally apathetic toward the process, as the promised trial was only intended for several top leaders.
“I am not satisfied with a trial of senior leaders,” Mok Say Vibol said at his stall behind the Royal Palace.
“I lived through the regime and I know vicious the cooperative chiefs were. We dared not laugh in front of them they were so brutal to us. Trying just a few people is useless,” he said. “If the trial were fair, then government officials who followed Pol Pot would be involved too.”
Kong Tary, 51 a policeman who said his father was tortured to death by the Khmer Rouge, said that too much time had elapsed to be enthusiastic about a trial now.
“We used to want justice for the Khmer Rouge because they killed the people but it is too long to remember what happened,” Kong Tary said.
“Now we just have 50- percent expectation for the trial,” he said.
Though the international judges ad prosecutors have arrived and both the court’s Cambodian and international appointees have been sworn in, 40-year-old Ouk Pov said he was still skeptical that the trials would actually take place.
“They always delay and postpone. Even if the foreigners are already here, they find a way to delay,” he said.
Others said that thinking about the Democratic Kampuchea period was still too traumatic, and Kol Pich, 65, a parking attendant originally from Battambang province, said he wanted to know as little as possible about the tribunal.
“I know nothing about the trial,” Kol Pich said. “Not thinking about it make me feel peaceful ; when I am reminded about the past it makes me angry,” he said.
“If they had the trial right after the Khmer Rouge regime, the people would have satisfied, but by now it has been too long,” he said. “The leaders are sick and old. Why do they waste money to try them ?”
Sao Sey, 48, a sugar cane seller from Svay Rieng province, agreed “Life was hard under them but it was a long time ago,” she said. If they put those leaders in jail, so what? The people get nothing from that.”
At Phnom Penh’s O’Russei Market, flower seller Chhim Mary, 51, whose parents died during Democratic Kampuchea, said that she was happy that the tribunal was starting, but worried that if the trials don’t happen soon they may not happen at all.
“I just don’t believe that they can try them Ta Mok is sick, the others are very old,” she said.
“Please have the trial soon because [the leaders] have nearly all died,” said cyclo driver Sok Un, 71.
Duch Silong, a Pailin resident who was a Khmer Rouge soldier in Battambang during the regime, said there was nothing to benefit from digging up the country’s brutal past.
“I don’t want to have a trial because it will remind people and make everyone suffer and want to have revenge against each other again,” he said. “They should try and forget the past and live in society together.”
(Additional reporting by Prak Chan Thul)

We wish that Cambodia Daily spreads its inquiry with the rag-pickers living with their family (woman and children) on heaps of garbage trying to find the saleable rests with permanently pestilential smells, and prostituted[1] men and women, With Cambodians who beg in Saigon, Cambodians who are forced to work in Thailand etc. who have relatives also victims of the Khmer Rouge.

Indeed, why put aside families victims of the US bombardments? The victims families of the K5 Plan to build the « Bamboo Wall »? The families of the victims of the multiple massacres among which those of December 1991, of March 30th 1997, of July 1997, of September 1998? Without mentioning the families of Thun Bunly, Piseth Pilika, Om Radsady, Touch Sunnich, the venerable Sam Bounthoeun, Chea Vichea and of so many the others?

In his message dated July 6th, 2006 the King Father has mentioned the main reason of this people indifference :
« (…) our Ordinary People, i.e. the very large majority of Khmer men and women [living] inside this 2nd Kingdom of Cambodia, remains in extreme poverty, often lacks rice and other food staples, and, last but not least, is in increasing number, chased and deprived of their lands. And this “2nd Kingdom” Cambodia itself is officially classified among the poorest and the most backward countries in the world, and this, in spite of the numerous and incredible “homes” of the Super Rich, in spite of their ultra sumptuous villas, their highly luxurious cars, their enormous bank accounts, jewelries and other treasures worthy of Super Maharaja before the Independence and the Democratization of India… (…)
“ But this million of our Ordinary people, “the young generation” in this beginning of the 21st Century, are the authentic offspring (sons, daughters, cousins, nephews, nieces, grandsons, granddaughters, great- grandsons, great-granddaughters) of the authentic victims of Polpotisme.” (…)

Let us remind that the Nazi regime killed officially 6 million Jews during the last World War. From the end of this war, the victim’s families, Jews or not, were able to get back their real estates and furnitures. Those whose these possessions were destroyed are indemnified. The orphans are well welcomed and schooled with helps and supports of the community and the Government. That makes quickly the wounds of the war well treated with repairs and / or compensations. Nowadays the Jews are so well integrated into the social, cultural and economic life of the country where they are living. There is no single illiterate or labor Jew in factories!

More all the Nazi concentration camps were carefully maintained. In these camps reigned an atmosphere of respect to the deaths. There are no bones or skulls of the torture victims exposing like those in Cambodia. To honor these deaths, numerous monuments in certain capitals of Europe were built. In Berlin for example the monument to the memory of the Jews died in camps, covers more than hectare, situated in the heart of the city, built at the German government expense.

Is it the case of Cambodia? 27 years after the end of the Khmer rouge regime? Rainsy raised that every year, 200 000 Cambodian continue to die from ignorance, diseases, AIDS and misery. In Cambodia the infant mortality is one of the higher, otherwise the most higher of the world.

Bones and skulls of the torture victims were expose publicly and in certain places these bones remained in the mud as those of animals without maintenance. When a monument to their memory shall be build then the families of the deaths can come to collect themselves ? Why this contempt of the international community for the Cambodian people? Is it necessary to have some more million of deaths? Does not the respect for the deaths is part of the human culture since more than one hundred thousand years? Then, does the great powers responsible are human beings ? Them who claim to respect the Human Rights ? Is not the most elementary right of the people is first of all the respect for the death of his/her fellow men? Why Pol Pot and Ta Mok are entitled to normal burial? But not for their victims? Why two weights and two measures?

Once again the King Father is right in his message of July 15th, 2006 entitled : “ The lost soul of the Victims of the Pol Pot Khmer Rouge”
“ The lost souls of the victims of the Pol Pot K.R. monsters (including innumerable Sihanoukistes: Ordinary Khmer People, Members of my family and that of my Wife, Members of the FUNK and GRUNC) will find true Peace, Calm, only when the totality of their bones (skulls, skeletons) is cremated according to Buddhist rites (with benediction in the form of prayers and pouring of perfume-scented water, etc…, and finally preservation [of the ashes] in stupas.)
These Buddhist rites absolutely conform to the non-uprootable beliefs and the mandatory practices of our parents, grandparents, and ancestors, and thus since centuries ago.
That is why, in the first years of the 90s, I had solemnly requested that these rites be performed (at my cost, including the cost for the construction of the stupas) in order to allow these lost souls to escape from their unspeakable torment, and attain the “Sokkatekphoup”, Peace, and total Calm.” (…)

Why does the international community continue to ignore and violate the Cambodian deaths and by there even to the Cambodian people themselves in general, including Cambodians living abroad ? Are there not enough Cambodian deaths since 1970 until nowadays? Why this exception only for Cambodian in this essential duty to the deaths? Why between the Jews and the Cambodians, there are, for the international community, two weights and two measures, two manners, so striking of injustice, to behave on two similar problems?

Plundering our natural resources : precious stones, forests, fishes and soon petroleum and natural gas, etc. still is not sufficient ? Why to accept the voluntary stupidity of the Cambodian people by an absurd policy of the education concerning the professor's salary and the compulsory school program? Why does the international community close eyes when the Vietnamese practice a racist policy against our brothers of the Kampuchea Krom? Are not the Vietnamese making everything destroying their ancestral culture by the elimination of the Cambodian language? Why close eyes when millions of Vietnamese come to settle as master in our home ? And qualifying as "racist" any slight desire to oppose to this invasion? Why favoring this invasion by building a real highway between Phnom Penh and Saigon? The first one in Cambodia as in Vietnam? By resorting exclusively the Vietnamese enterprises? While the communications inside Cambodia always remain untidy? Why the road between Sisophon and the city of Siem Reap remains always impracticable? Why the road Phnom Penh-Preah Vihear started by Chea Sophara remains in suspens ?

After the recent Ta Mok death, we reproduce below the message of King Father of July 22nd, 2005, entitled : An honorable and … sensational testimonial
In the evening of Friday 21 to Saturday, July 22, 2006, at 0:20 AM, TV5 let the young and very credible Mr. CARETTE speaks freely, he who just came to visit Cambodia for seriously investigating the Affair of the (very costly) Khmer-Foreign Tribunal in charge of trying some Khmer Rouge leaders guilty of crimes against Humanity.
Mr. CARETTE, while noting the death of the extremely-cruel and extremely-criminal Ta Mok, concluded that the famous TRIBUNAL will finally have to judge only one single individual, “Commander” Duch … (if, 4 years from now, this Duch is still alive).
Spending US $56 million to try one man, even though extremely criminal, will inevitably be judged with great severity by History itself.
Mr. CARETTE, very clearly, testified that in Cambodia, the Khmer people only think about assuring themselves a decent living and that only the Khmer Diaspora (sic!) in some foreign Countries are demanding for this Tribunal and this trial.
Other comments adding to Mr. CARETTE’s testimonial are superfluous.
(Signed): Norodom Sihanouk

Of course 56 millions US dollars are widely insufficient to help Cambodia to develop like her eastern and western neighbours. But the more than two billion petrodollars US$ of annuities are not more than sufficient ? What major powers and powerful oil companies are going to make so that Cambodia does not become another Angola ? With as future the vietnamisation of our country following the example of our Kampuchea Krom? Who are going to pocket these more than two billion petrodollars per year ? The vietnamese Sokimex company does not already have its part? That of the lion one? And who else ? Why always this thick opaqueness concerning the terms of the contract between Hun Sen and the oil companies ? Who can certify us, in a credible way, the true reserves of our wealth in petroleum and in natural gas? Who can guarantee, in a credible way, the real quantity of our “proved” reserve and the real annual income in hydrocarbons? It is necessary to underline that this more than two billions of US$ annual do concern only the reserves already confirmed by the oil companies.

The Cambodians did not wait for the institution of this "Court", already disqualify, moribund and hardly born dying, to be united in the multiform fights, with their small means, against the ignorance, the disease and the misery, against the exaggerated monopoly of the vietnamese company Sokimex and its Canadia bank, for the national independence in the territorial and maritime integrity, for the democracy and the freedom. We accentuated important successes on the cultural, linguistic, economic and social plans, in our previous articles.

In Cambodia the proverb « Help yourself, then God will help you » always remains in the current life. The respect itself gains by the struggle. The history shows that the National Independence, the Territorial and Maritime Integrity, the Democracy, the Freedom and the Peace, the Economic development for the Whole People, are always acquired by the struggle of the people[2].

Note : Cet article est aussi disponible en français sur demande.

[1] Nantarayao Samputho describes these pariah Cambodian in his book "Lethik Prachea Thiptey" and translated by himself into French « Cambodia in voice off », edition Funan, Phnom Penh 2004.
[2] After the World War II, the United States made everything to develop quickly the reconstruction and the economy of South Korea, Japan and Taiwan to form a block opposing to China. Now Washington and Tokyo are not they completing this China encirclement by helping Vietnam? Is this strategy begun by Japan since 1972 and followed nowadays by the United States has no consequence for our country? Especially with our plentiful reserve in hydrocarbons? Are the Cambodians going to undergo passively “the oil curse” ? As so many others countries ?

mardi, juillet 25, 2006

Institute of National Language



Royal Academy of Cambodia

Russian Federation Blvd, Royal University of Phnom Penh, Campus II Tel: (855) 092 892 343, 011 734 992, 012 906 585, 012 446 416 Fax: (855) 23 890 180 E-mail:

Dear Friends and Colleagues:

We would like to invite you to participate in a conference on Research, Conservation, and Promotion of Khmer Language on Lexicology and Lexicography organized by the Institute of National Language, Royal Academy of Cambodia. The conference will be held on the 19th October, 2006 at the Royal Academy of Cambodia. Please find enclosed information and the registration form for the conference. The conference aims to provide a forum for discussion and interaction for participants, especially those who are practitioners in lexicology, and lexicography. If you have any queries, please feel free to contact us via e-mail: We hope you will be the participants at the conference. The Conference Organizing Committee Institute of National Language Royal Academy of Cambodia.


Khemara Jati
Montréal, Québec
July 25, 2006

A nation, first of all is a unique and an only one language for the whole people. All the developed countries use the same and the single language from the maternal up to the university the same language, with one or several foreign languages. It is the case of all the developed countries of the world and also as our neighbours, in Vietnam and in Thailand. How can we make up for our intellectual delay and then economic when we form only 25 engineers a year?

Cambodia needs to form, every year, a great number of high-level intellectuals among whom the engineers, thousands even dozens thousands to meet the industry's needs which are going to settle down in our country with the four billion petrodollar annuities. The experience shows that the education in foreign language in the technical universities is an obstacle to form this great number of intellectuals. Can a country be independent when the technical posts are in the hands of the foreigners?

Note : Cet article est disponible aussi en français sur demande.

Cambodia and "The curse of the Petrodolleum?"

News From Cambodia N° 0629E


Khemara Jati
Montréal, Québec
July 17, 2006

Now it confirms that Cambodia possesses important deposits of petroleum and gas under its continental shelf. And it is only the beginning. The problem is to know who are going to take advantage of these wealth ?

First of all, it is necessary to try to know the real quantity of our wealth already discovered. Because can we have a full confidence in the estimations of the oil companies ? Never let us forget that the oil companies look by all means to hide the reality of their discoveries. The misery of the peoples of the Africa countries as Angola for example which possesses enormous quantities of petroleum, does not incite us to the full attentiveness?

On the other hand, there is a greediness of our neighbours. Does not Vietnam already has a foot in our oil wealth under the form of its company Sokimex ? Without mentioning the numerous complicities within the current regime.

The representative of the SRP, Yim Sovann is right to raise this question:

« Sam Rainsy Party lawmaker Yim Sovann, chairman of the National Assembly’s Anti-Corruption Commission, said Cambodia did not have a law on the oil sector or on oil income management yet, and should establish clear policy guidelines before allowing oil exploration companies to proceed any further.

“We need to have and effective law, otherwise they will explore in anarchy and income will be lost to corrupt officials,” Sovann said.

The Word Bank Cambodia’s June Newsletter described the “resource curse” as the observation that since the 1970s, countries rich in natural resource (particularly oil, gas, and minerals) had achieved a slower rate of economic growth than resource-poor countries. Oil in particular generates a huge revenue stream for a government, but the number of taxpayers contributing to the oil revenue would be small. This made a government feel less accountable of its citizens and often led to worsening governance and large-scale corruption.” (Phnom Penh Post, July 14-27, 2006)

In the Cambodia Daily of Wednesday, July 5, 2006, in its article “Chevron Ships drilling Rods to Sihanoukville” by Kay Kimsong,

“Yim Sovann said that the Assembly has not been regularly or fully informed about the exploration for oil, and called for the drafting of a law on managing oil and gas resources.

“Only a few people in government are dealing with oil and gas, such as Prime Minister Hun Sen and (Cabinet Minister) Sok An,” Yim Sovann said.

“If no law is adopted to protect crude oil and natural gas, these resources will be gone without profiting the Cambodian people,” he said.”

On the other hand, without Cambodian patriotic engineers and administrators well chosen and well paid appointed by proper and not corrupt authorities, can we totally rely on the assertions of the oil companies which tend to minimize our resources and the export reality ? As in many countries of Africa, in Angola in particular?

On the other hand in when the construction of an oil refinery and electric factories using our resources in hydrocarbon?

We reproduce below the full text of Cheang Sokha article, published in Phnom Penh Post of July 14-27, 2006.

Phnom Penh Post
July 14-27, 2006
Oil companies line up to drill off shore

Oil and gas exploration companies are lining up for a slice of the action in Cambodia's offshore oil field.

A Chevron-Ied consortium signed an agreement with Cam­bodian National Petroleum Authority (CNPA) chairman Sok An on July 6 to begin drilling in an area 120 km off the coast known as Block A, and oil could be flow­ing in not much more than a year.

Meanwhile a Chinese com­pany and a French company have met separately with Prime Min­ister Hun Sen to express their in­terest in exploration.

But a warning has been sounded that Cambodia has yet to pass any laws controlling the exploitation of its petroleum re­serves and is in danger of falling prey to the so-called "resource curse," whereby through poor governance oil revenues could be corruptly diverted and most people receive little benefit.

Eang SophalIeth, Hun Sen's personal assistant, said Hun Sen met Charles Mattenet from French Company Total Petroleum on July 7, and Yao Pinli, public communi­cations director of the China Na­tional Oil Company, on July 3.

"Samdech Hun Sen welcomed the projects, which could gener­ate more revenue to the state bud­get, and advised them to meet with Sok An for further discus­sion," Sophalleth said.

Men Den, director of explora­tion and production at CNPA, said it was a good sign that the Chinese and French companies intend to explore for oil and gas in Cambodia, which had numer­ous oil deposits and an estimated three trillion cubic feet (85 billion cubic meters) of natural gas.

"The China National Oil Com­pany is the third biggest company in China and it specializes in ex­ploring for oil and gas," Den said.

On July 6, Sok An signed an agreement to drill in Block A with a consortium comprising the US company Chevron Oversea Pe­troleum Cambodia Ltd (55 per­cent), Japan' s Mitsui Oil Explora­tion Co Ltd (Moeco) (30 percent) and South Korea's GS Caltex (15 percent).

Chevron Texaco announced last year that its affiliate had dis­covered oil in four exploration wells in Block A. The 6,278 square kilometer block encompasses the Khmer basin, with water depths averaging 70 meters.

On June 27, Chevron Texaco Cambodia transported drilling equipment including more than 2,000 tons of cranes and rods to Sihanoukville port.

Sihanoukville port.deputy dir­ector-general Ma Sun Hout said Chevron had signed a one-year contract with the port to lease one hectare of land to store the equip­ment and the company would need roughly 15 hectares when drilling began next month. .

"The equipment will be taken to the weIl sites next month," Sun Hout said. "We will do our best to help them make the drilling process go well."

The CNPA's Den said Chev­ron had already drilled five wells since 2002 and would now start to drill other wells, but it would take more than a year to get into production.

"They are still in the studying process," Den said, "I estimate they will spend between $700 and $800 million on drilling,"

Den said several companies had looked for oil in Cambodia's offshore waters since 1992 but had withdrawn after calculating they would have to invest a lot for a limited return.

"We need to have an effective law, otherwlse they will explore in anarchy and income will be lost to corrupt officials. " - SRP's Yim Sovann.

World Bank economist Hout Chea said Cambodia could po­tentially get considerable benefit from exporting its oil and gas re­serves, but good management would be needed to keep the eco­nomy stable.

Sam Rainsy Party lawmaker Yim Sovann, chairman of the Na­tional Assembly's Anti-Corrup­tion Commission, said Cambodia did not have a law on the oil sec­tor or on oil income management yet, and should establish clear policy guidelines before allowing
oil exploration companies to pro­ceed any further.

"We need to have an effective law, otherwise they will explore in anarchy and income will be lost to corrupt officiaIs," Sovann said.

The World Bank Cambodia's June newsletter described the "re­source curse" as the observation that since the 1970s, countries rich in natural resources (particularly oil, gas, and mineraIs) had achieved a slower rate of eco­nomic growth than resource-poor countries. Oil in particular gen­erated a huge revenue stream for a government, but the number of taxpayers contributing to the oil revenue would be small. This made a government feel less ac­countable to its citizens and often led to worsening governance and large-scale corruption.

The government awarded the petroleum production-sharing contract covering Block A to the Chevron Oversea Petroleum Cambodia and Moeco on August 15, 2002.

"There is a great momentum to promote the exploration, de­velopment and production of pe­troleum resources as well as to secure further international in­vestment in Cambodia' s oil and gas industry," Sok An said after the signing agreement ceremony at the time.

"We hope that exploration work by the Chevron Texaco and Moeco will succeed in finding hydrocarbons in offshore Cam­bodia and bring economic ben­efits to the people of Cambodia as weIl as to the company."

Published by Khemara Jati

Note : Cet article est aussi disponible en français sur demande

samedi, juillet 01, 2006

The situation of Cambodia


1/Cambodia in the world context
2/. Development of the social and economic sectors bound to the national problem.
a/. The intellectuals
b/. The workers of cities.
c/. The artisans, small and average bourgeoisie.
d/. The farmers.
3. Conclusion

Khemara Jati
Montreal, Quebec
June 26th, 2006

1/. Cambodia in the world context

It is imaginary to try to understand the current situation of Cambodia, if we do not take into account geostrategic interests of major powers in the global scale. For example, the recent travel of Ronald Rumsfeld in Hanoi and the next journey of Bush in Vietnam would have no consequence for Cambodia?

Similarly, it is imaginary to write the history of our country if we do not take into account the arrival of the Europeans in our region by boat from the conquest, in 1511, of the port of Malacca, very important pole for the commerce in Europe - Southeast Asia and the East. The opening of this seaway killed the ground Road of the Silk and ringed the decline of Central Asia empires.

Some years later, the Portuguese arrived at Ayuthia, in Annam, in China, in Japan, etc. Then some years later, in 1521, in the name of Spain Magellan arrived to the Philippines by the West, after the first crossing of the Pacific Ocean. This first demonstration of the roundness of the earth, was also a great cultural revolution in the thought of the Europeans.

The Europeans brought with them their scientific knowledge, their systems of organizations and their firearms. Cambodia at that time had no seaport.

Nowadays the most developed and the most populous regions of the world are the coastal regions around ports. In Japan, 90 % of the population are concentrated around the big ports, on a surface which represents only the tenth of the country.

By the way, let us mention that Cambodia has a maritime port only since 1969. Now we know that not far from this port, there is some petroleum. Since 2009, Cambodia is going to collect returns oil of 4 billions of US a year. So our port and our coastal regions are intended to become the industrial, commercial, cultural and touristic the most important area of this region. The question is to know if this region will remain Cambodian? If Cambodia forms only 25 engineers a year and that Japan grants up to now only 125 scholarships to go to study in her universities in Japanese language?

Why Japan does worry only about roads connecting Phnom Penh with Saigon, the road which connects our provinces of the Northeast with the Vietnamese port of Da-Nang? While the road RN 4 connecting Phnom Penh with our port of Kompong Som, offered gracefully by the United States, is always toll? The road Sisophon in the city of Siem Reap remains always impracticable? Since 1992 until now why does Japan make everything to facilitate the transformation of Cambodia to become Vietnamese province?[1]

Before the fall of the Berlin Wall, the future of a country bases on the number of the divisions of her army. Nowadays the future of a country bases on the number of her engineers. China forms 400 000 engineers a year, India 300 000 and the United States has the best laboratories of the world. In this context Cambodia forms only 25 engineers a year in foreign language.

Does Cambodia lacks of brain? During the last « International Junior Science Olympiad » which were held in Indonesia in December 2005, on six candidates, Cambodia obtained 6 medals:

§ Dy Kusha obtained a Golden medal. He is proud of his success and is delighted at the fact that neither Thailand, nor Vietnam obtained a Golden medal.

§ Mom Charya (f) and Ty Sovisal obtained, almost ex æquo a silver medal each. Before them, there was only one silver medalist Thai and no Vietnamese. The Cambodian Mom Charya declared that the current regime does not favor the scientific studies in Cambodia.

§ Say Buntha, Huoy Channaren and Hun Vanasola obtained each a Bronze medal.

The tests were made in English. Six candidates are 16 years old, all from modest families and learn mainly by self-taught. They read and usually write in Cambodian, English and French. Until now these young people who show to the world, the intellectual abilities of our nation, are still honored by no man or Cambodian political party. One day, these intellectuals of the new generation will teach the mathematics, the sciences and the techniques in national language in our universities.

2/. Development of the social and economic sectors bound to the national problem.

Now, inside as outside of the country, Cambodians are unanimous to say that our fundamental problem is the vietnamese domination. Already it is an important step in our multiform struggles to release our country of the vietnamese domination.

In Cambodia, the gravity of the vietnamese power is smelt since 1979. The separations, the sufferings and the deaths caused by the inhuman conditions during the construction of the “Bamboo Wall” of the K5 plan always remained in the memory of our fellow countrymen in Cambodia and more particularly those living in the countryside. On the other hand, almost the totality of our fellow countrymen who were expropriated by the Khmer rouge. Since, they were not able yet to get back either their lands or their real estate and furniture. Up to now they received no compensation. In Cambodia, there is still neither service of serious land registry, nor a very precise law on the perpetuity of the private property. The high civil and military authorities take advantage of their fuzzy to expropriate by force and grab back the lands which are convenient for them. The poor men are now obliged to defend their lands, their houses by uniting and often by using cutting weapons. They answer the violence by the violence in a country where reigns the law of the jungle.

After the signature of the Paris Agreements on October 23rd 1991, our fellow countrymen abroad were almost unanimous to think that major powers and the UN were going to bring us on a silver tray the National Independence with our territorial and maritime Integrity, the economic development, the prosperity for all, the democracy, the freedom and the peace.

Our fellow countrymen in Cambodia remained sceptical. Because they knew that the evacuation of the vietnamese troops was only a comedy. Major powers also knew it, but closed eyes. Cambodians knew that there was and that there is still numerous vietnamese officers and general in the marionette army. They knew that many vietnamese in civilian were only the disguised vietnamese soldiers and officers. The massacre of the demonstrators of December 1991 was committed by the vietnamese police. During the “Coup d'état of July 1997”, to destroy the Funcinpec army, these vietnamese officers and soldiers disguised as civilian had only to change uniforms[2] to join the regular units of the Popular Army of Vietnam (PAV) which operated openly. Major powers also knew it, but closed eyes. They knew that there was numerous vietnamese “counselors” in the acquaintance circle of the criminal and lackey Hun Sen. Moreover the marionette Hun Sen frequents the golf after the official meetings. Major powers know it very well, but close eyes, the defence of their geostrategic interests obliges. The wild and bloodthirsty massacres of July 1997 were the fact of the PAV operation. The massacre of September 1998 was also the work of the vietnamese police Hok Lundy.

Do our fellow countrymen abroad know it or do they still remember these facts? Without having in mind these source data, how hoping to find the means to gather Cambodians in the multiform liberator struggles, if we ignore or already forget these facts which remain burned in the memory of our fellow countrymen in Cambodia?

Cambodians of Cambodia are obliged to live or to survive to fight on all fronts with their blood, their sweat and their brain. The intellectuals, factory workers, artisans, small and average bourgeoisie, farmers are the social categories which are obliged to struggle against the totalitarian power, thus against the vietnamese domination, to be able to exist and to develop.

a/. The intellectuals

First of all an observation: educated people never agree to live under the dependence of the other one. Hanoi knows it better than any other. That is why the current regime makes everything to maintain Cambodian people in the ignorance, thus in the disease, the poverty and the dependence. In particular by sabotaging our system of education: paid professors less than 25 $US a month, schooling of half-day for the children of the parents who have the means and the unsuitable scholar materials and textbooks.

The scientific elite’s training is made in small number because in foreign language. Contrary to what takes place in all the developed countries, where the scientific education is made in the same language as that of the maternal classes, with one or several foreign languages from the school or a little earlier. The higher education is always made in the national language with one or several foreign languages. How can we hope to form quickly, thousands a year, even dozens thousand engineers, doctors and technicians of all levels with the education in the scientific universities in a different language taught in primary classes? How can we diffuse scientific popularization books in these conditions? Do we know how to listen to the prize-winners of the International Scientific Olympiads Junior are saying ?

It is important to note that more than 90 % of the Cambodians abroad do not speak the national language with their children. In these conditions how can we hope that they can help our fellow countrymen in Cambodia to release themselves from the vietnamese domination? To hope to be able to unite our fellow countrymen in Cambodia, should not we try at first to unite the Cambodians abroad? Otherwise, we are only transporting our confrontations into Cambodia? Especially while the puppet power has mountains of dollars to corrupt ?

On the other hand, Cambodia is the only country of our region to have no historic research center. Until now, our history is mainly written by foreigners. It is so regrettable for Cambodia as well as for the future generation. Now all the historians know that there is no historic truth. The history is the politic. The history is written by the present, by the winners for objectives that they settled. « The history is a continuation of lies on which we agree » wrote Napoleon. If this research center is not able to materialize in Cambodia, because of the marionette regime's obstruction, why not settle it abroad? Naturally this centre has to use the most modern methods using in the biggest universities of the world, in the research on our history. To understand our history, is necessary to give its importance for the economic, cultural history and also to place our country in the evolution of the world from 1511.

To spend time criticizing or cursing the past, is not it a way of entering the future in the backward way ? To accept the vietnamese accomplished fact ? The past has direction only if we accept to fight against the true obstacles which block our road for the future of our children.

In Cambodia, our national culture develops thanks to patriots formed abroad as well as in Cambodia. Let us underline that the professor Long Seam, PhD at the University of Moscow, has published in the year 2000, a dictionary of the Ancient Khmer - Modern Khmer, with the ancient and modern typefaces, financed by the Toyota Foundation [3]. Professor Long Seam and his team, with of modest means, are working to publish a dictionary of the Cambodian language with 60 000 inputs. It will be the second dictionary of this kind following the dictionary of Chuon Nath published at the beginning of 1960s. Who thinks of helping him ?

In the cultural field, let us mention the importance of the too brief regrettably contribution of Ingrid Muan[4], one brilliant university American of Swedish origin. She died recently, in mysterious conditions in Phnom Penh at the age of 40. She usually spoke about our language and liked speaking to simple people. She has chosen our country after having visited Indonesia and Vietnam. She felt that in Cambodia there is an artistic and cultural soul and an atmosphere bequeathed by a history furthermore of three thousand years. Her works are fortunately pursued by her Cambodian and foreign co-workers. The assistants continue to stream. Cambodia has now modern printing offices capable of editing books of international quality and at very competitive prices. The Cambodian culture is now known and appreciated in the western cultivated world. Let us indicate that in the United States there is also Cambodian Ph.D in musicology and in classic Cambodian dances. They often come in Cambodia to make their contributions in the development of our culture. Neither Thailand nor Vietnam can compete us in these domains.

Does Cambodia lack of brains? Are not the results of the last International Scientific Olympiads Junior in Indonesia shows the opposite ? These results are certainly going to make our young people in Cambodia and also abroad in dream. Does Cambodia miss artists of international level? The current development of our art: music, dance, paint, sculpture, novel etc. shows obviously the flourish of our culture. We thank Ingrid Muan for having anticipated this immense capacity of our people and having dedicated her life to help them to develop.

Let us mention that there are also Cambodians who publish the ancient papers to inspire our young people. Already DVD and books published in Cambodia cross our borders and are known in the homes of our brothers in Kampuchea Krom and in Thailand. From now on the Cambodian culture has a written and visual support. The brotherhood and the cultural community between the Cambodians of Cambodia and our brothers out of borders can only strengthen. Let us indicate that already the same songs are listened and hummed from Surin up to Triton by way of Phnom Penh. We wish to know soon cultural works created by our sisters and brothers out of our borders.

Cambodia now has printers, publishers, editors and booksellers who suitably earn the keep. Still problem of copyright remains now to allow our writers to gain some money and to live on their papers as it was the case of Boun Chan Mol for example before 1975.

All of this our fellow countrymen living in Europe and in North America move to develop. How many our fellow countrymen abroad have books published in Cambodia in their libraries ? It belongs to us, Cambodians of the diaspora to put herself in phase with our fellow countrymen in Cambodia.

b/The workers of cities

In the current social context, there are now 300 000 Cambodian workers, men and women, in the textile industries making their lives thanks to the exports mainly towards the United States and Europe. The salaries of these workers represent just for themselves 180 millions of $US a year. The entirety of this sum goes in the economic process of the country with hundred of millions of $US from families living abroad and a part of the NGO spending. The “international assistances” go mainly to the pockets of the high dignitaries of the marionette regime.

The majority of the families of these textile factories workers live in the countryside. These young workers are thus vectors for being introduced ideas of cities to their families. They are thus vectors of modernization in the countryside. Still the roads connecting cities and villages have to be improved, to make the journey travel short then to accelerate the symbiosis city - village. It is exactly what Japan refuses stubbornly to help in this domain.

In Cambodia, there is practically no institute or school of a certain importance to form technicians of all levels. The Electricity of Cambodia is obliged to appeal to the NGO to form technicians but only for the Western part of our country. Why ? Is it because in the Eastern part, Vietnam takes care of it? The business and the electricity network of this Eastern region are not already integrated to Vietnam? Hok Lundy, who controls effectively the Cambodian army and the police is not already, in fact, the true master of the country. Hok Lundy receives orders only from Hanoi. Is it not him who orders Hun Sen to dismiss Chea Sophara ? In his fief in Svay Rieng, Hok Lundy built a real castle with the most sophisticated communication connecting directly with Hanoi and his networks installed everywhere in Cambodia. Cambodians, with a little bit curious can go to observe it in person but at their risks and dangers.

Cambodian workers have similar interests. The TUWKC (Independent Trade Union of the Workers of the Kingdom of Cambodia) which defends them is the first professional organization of Cambodia. The fight of all Cambodian workers to defend their salaries and their employment conditions, been an integral part of our struggles to release our country of the vietnamese domination and for the democracy and the freedom as well. The president of TUWKC, Chea Vichea is known and supported by numerous Unions of the western world. Still nothing did stop Hok Lundy's henchmen from killing him. Now Chea Vichea's brother, Chea Mony continues the chalenge. Cambodians are no more afraid of death. The memory of Chea Vichea remains always long-lived in Cambodia. The puppet regime is now afraid of Chea Vichea's ghost. It always refuses to allow to erect a statue to honor the deceased memory. The fantoche regime is afraid of the patriot's ghosts, her who knees down in front of the gigantic monument to the glory of her bosses.

At the same time, there is now a Union for teachers under the name of « Independent Association of the Teachers of Cambodia ». This Association is similar as the trade Union. The Union spirit is stronger than ever.

c/. The artisans, small and average bourgeoisie

In 1979, the Vietnamese appropriated the most beautiful houses in Cambodia and the houses of Phnom Penh. When the Westerners arrived in 1991, the Vietnamese sold them with the golden prices. Then the Westerners call to the Vietnamese workers to renew them pleading that Cambodians are incapable to do such works. Doctor Beat Richner demonstrates the opposite. Richner used only companies, engineers and Cambodian technicians to build Kantha Bopha hospitals according to the "Swiss" standards. Richner apply the "Swiss" hygiene in these hospitals, use the best medicines as in "Switzerland". The nursing staff is almost Cambodian altogether. It is the proof that even in the current conditions, Cambodians are capable of building and insuring the hospital's functioning of Swiss quality.

In one word, it proves that there is no international will, in the only exception of Beat Richner, who teaches to the Cambodians sciences and techniques. Is it not a way of helping Vietnam to transform our country into one of its provinces ?

Never mind, Cambodians learn on the job, by managing in self-taughts, to learn by making it. Moreover a prize-winner of the International Scientific Olympiad Junior, Mom Charya, does not she who regrets that the scientific studies are not encouraged in Cambodia? Does not Japan use only vietnamese companies to build the roads from Phnom Penh to Saigon and the road connecting our provinces of the Northeast with the vietnamese port of Da Nang ?

There are now Cambodian garages repairing the most modern cars, mechanics of televisions in villages etc. Many Cambodians, now have required Cambodian technicians and workers to build and renew their house, to repair air-conditioners, different engines, computer devices, etc. Our fellow countrymen say that the Cambodian workers work well and are more conscientiously than the Vietnamese workers.

There are now Cambodian small and medium-sized businesses in all domains. Recently there are owners of rice-manufacturing who fight to be able to export our rice by our Kompong Som port instead of Saigon.

So the engineers, the technicians, the artisans, the bosses of small and medium-sized enterprises are confronted with the same enemies : the puppet regime obstruction and the vietnamese economic domination.

In particular by the domination of the vietnamese company Sokimex which has the virtual monopoly of the import and the distribution of oil productions, the garment of the army and the police uniforms, etc. Is not it the main reason of the energy price in Cambodia, one and a half time more expensive than at our neighbours? Sokimex with its affiliated companies, as the Canadia bank, is not, so far, the biggest land property owner of Cambodia ? Sokimex and the Canadia bank already possess a war treasure which amounts to billions, even dozen billion dollars. The vietnamese Canadia bank, the biggest "private" bank of Cambodia also has the monopoly of the international trade of our country.

To slow down the economic development of Cambodia, the marionette regime charges to the Cambodians the double price of the energy more expensive than our neighbours. Indeed the energy is the base of any economic development. Then this high price of the energy fulfills Sokimex pockets and Hanoi wins each time.

Besides, there is a problem of security. Cars and trucks driven by Vietnamese are never controlled by the policemen. The Cambodian enterprises which do not use Vietnamese employees have to face security's problems. The banking system in Cambodia is not used yet usually. The big international banks are not represented in Cambodia yet. Why ?

Also let us mention the fight of the Cambodian lawyers to impose the democracy within their association, « The Bar ». There is more than a years, the lawyer Suon Visal was regularly elected president of the Bar as a replacement of the marionette regime representative Ky Tech. But this latest refuses to transfer his position. As a rule, the new election has to be held in April. With the complicity of the puppet regime, Ky Tech always refuses to fix a precise date for these new elections. It shows clearly that the intellectuals do not agree any more to comply with four wills of the fantoche regime. What Japan will do, her who is the main financial supplier of the Cambodian Bar ?

So the artisans, small and average bourgeoisie are obliged to struggle against the lackey regime, thus against the vietnamese domination to survive and to develop in number and in business volume.

Let us underline that there is now a certain distrust against the vietnamese products. Is it a kind of vietnamese products boycott which is being established in Cambodia and well as abroad? In fact, more and more numerous Cambodians, in Cambodia and abroad as well, do not want to buy any more any products « made in Vietnam ».

d/. The farmers

It is the social category which bound illiterates' biggest proportion, the largest proportion of not schooled children. Only them who support the burden of the Bamboo Wall's construction of the K5 plan, run by Hun Sen in 1986, under Hanoi's order. After the Paris Agreements, they were never indemnified. UNTAC has never attributed them lands nevertheless promised by Akashi. How many of them come to die pitifully in cities? How many of them are obliged to go begging in Saigon or in Bangkok? How many of their girls and sons are obliged to prostitute themselves ? How many of them died from AIDS introduced by UNTAC's people and propagated by the vietnamese prostitutes?

Nowadays, Cambodian farmers have to struggle against the marionette regime which hanging them with an iron hand, in the ignorance, the disease and the poverty.

Most of their children, men and women, are the textile factories workers who send them a part of their salaries. Every year these workers come to visit their families several times a year. Roads are difficult, especially during rainy season. Japan spends hundred million dollars to build roads favoring Cambodian exports towards Saigon, but not the slightest penny for our internal communications. Cambodians use the existing roads since the Angkor time.

How many, among those who are obliged to frequent the garbage dumps, often with their children, to try to find the rests to survive ? Are not themselves or the children of those who were mistreated under the Khmer rouge regime, then mistreated during the Bamboo Wall's construction? Who thinks of helping them? Will their calvary come to an end with the annual oil pensions of 4 billions of US from 2009 ?

By coming to see their family, these workers bring not only a part of their salaries, but also knowledge of cities. Some also bring books, magazines, newspapers. So the farmers are not any more isolated and not delivered to themselves.

Others are obliged of fighting sometimes with cutting weapons to defend their lands, their houses.

Now the Cambodian farmers are not any more isolated. They know that the other sectors of society are also fighting against the fantoche regime. On the other hand some of their children know now how to read and the others acquired deeper knowledge. All those developments equip them knowledges, ideas and courage. Because they know now that the other sectors of society of the country also struggling against the same enemy.

3. Conclusion

The Unity amongst Cambodians to fight of all sectors of society is on the path. These struggles are multiforms but convergents towards the same objectives. The National Unity is being built and no any force can stop it.

Note : Cet article est aussi disponible en français sur demande.

[1] « Japan - Vietnam. History of a relation under influence », by Guy Faure and Laurent Schwab, Ed: IRASEC, Paris - Bangkok, on 2004
[2] The fantoche regime always continues to give the monopoly of the uniform garments of the Cambodian army and police to a subsidiary of the vietnamese company Sokimex. What is the number of Cambodian workers in this company ?
[3] Do not confuse the Toyota Foundation with the Japanese government which makes everything to help Vietnam to transform our country to become a vietnamese province, notably by financing mainly roads Phnom Penh - Saigon and the East-West road which will link our provinces of the Northeast with the Vietnamese port of Da Nang.
[4] Ingrid Muan was one of the brilliant American university of Swedish origin who created with her Cambodian friend Ly Daravuth the Centre Reyum to favor the evolution of the Cambodian art with the contributions of the other arts group of the world and also to develop the book's distribution in national (Khmer) language. She died mysteriously there is a little more than a year. Ingrid Muan was able to obtain great Cultural International Foundations as « The Albert Kunstadter Family Foundation », the « Japan Foundation Asia Center », the « Rockefeller Foundation » and the « Toyota Foundation » for important helps. She also ordered a study on the publications in Cambodia in 2002 and the printing office situation. Following this report, she obtained subsidies for the new and modern printing offices installation. Now in Cambodia, there are printing offices capable of publishing books in any kind like everywhere else and at very low prices, with completely Cambodian technicians. Now book's publishers (editors) in Cambodian gain some money. Still to fight against the censorship and for the real copyright institution so that the writers can gain in their turn some money as in all other developed countries of the world.