lundi, décembre 24, 2007

Cambodia and Christmas

News of Cambodia N 0750-E


Khemara Jati
Montreal, Quebec
December 23rd, 2007

Now the culture also is globalized. The Christian calendar is universally adopted. Christmas is now celebrated almost everywhere around the world. Christmas is meant of celebrating the Jesus Christ birthday. Since the antiquity, the solstice winter day, by December 21st, is considered as the day while the revival sun resumes its forces when the day is lengthening. The megalithic monuments in England as well as Stonehenge (3 500 years before J.C.) and as Newgrange (3 500 years before J.C.) in Ireland or Abou Simbel (1 500 years Before J.C.) in Egypt are built so that at the time of the solstice winter, the sun rays cross the same line through those monuments.

Christmas and its origin

So since the time memorial, people were anxious to keep this day when the days begin to stretch out. People celebrated this day the flourish of the nature and springtime for the agriculture. It was thus a heathen holiday of oriental origin. Constantin, the first Christian Roman emperor asked the pope Libere, in the year 354, to adopt the December 25th as the Christ birthday. He gives to this holiday the name of « Birth (in Latin: natale) of the Sun » because, as we saw, the sun seems to resume life and days starts to lengthen again. It is also a period when there are no more works in the fields.

The Church in Roma adopted now this very popular custom which had been imperative in the civil calendar by giving a new meaning : the Native of the Rescuer. The Bible mentions that the Christ is the « Sun of Justice » and as « The Light of the World ». Christmas is a derived word of « Natale ». Let us note that Corsica people continue to call Christmas, Natale. By choosing this day of December 25th, Constantin makes coincide the same day the religious celebration and heathen holiday allowing all the people to be delighted at the same time.

Since the ancient time, in the North of Europe, the patriarch of the community distributed in this day gifts to the wise children and the punishments to the nasty children. The spruce was considered as a source of life. It can resist better to the colds of the winter. The Santa was invented by an American in 1868 and drawn by Thomas Nast for Harper Magazine. He is dressed in green or in red? It was Coca Cola which transformed into red and white adopted universally nowadays.

Cambodia and Christmas

Yesterday on December 22nd, some Cambodians of Montreal take advantage of this special holiday celebrating Christmas with a Cambodia whose name is Sok coming from Cambodia for a short visit in Canada. During the Christmas Eve, we asked to our fellow countryman questions that we already rose to the Sam Rainsy Party. We reproduce those questions below:

1) Now the city of Siem Reap and a big part of our western provinces use the electricity provided from Thailand. So our western provinces are already dependent on Thailand in electrical energy. Does not Thailand already have an enormous means of making pressure on Cambodia? A country depending in electrical energy of a foreign country, can it be independent? Is there any developed country in the world be political independents in that condition?

2) The World Bank declares financing the electric line's construction with high tension from Vietnam to feed electricity in our provinces of the Northeast and the East. In these conditions can Cambodia be independent from Vietnam?

3) Vietnam is going to build two hydroelectric power in our provinces of the Northeast. Is not it another unbearable dependence vis-à-vis of our Eastern neighbor?

4) Japan is helping Vietnam to build highways connecting our provinces of the Northeast with the East vietnamese port to sell our wealth of this region by a Vietnamese port. Is it in the Cambodian national interests?

5) The USA intends to build a highway with three ways in each direction between Prey Nokor and Phnom Penh, while we need such a highway between Phnom Penh and Sihanoukville. Why this new facility granted to the vietnamese settlers to come even more numerous into Cambodia?

6) The development Centers build on our borders. The good roads are build of these Centers towards our neighbors but only the bad roads of these Centers towards Phnom Penh. Are these Centers going to use Cambodians as administrators, engineers and technicians? The productions of these Centers are they going to develop our port of Sihanoukville or on the contrary they are not going to enrich the ports of Prey Nokor and Bangkok? With the using of massive Vietnamese and Thai as administrators, engineers and technicians?

7) Are all these constructions be build with engineers, technicians and the others who are none of them are not Cambodian at all? Does it explain that 300 000 graduated Cambodian are always living under unemployed?


Now, with the threat to cut off the electricity supplying Siem Reap ville, Thailand can impose its domination on all the West of Cambodia. So all the Western part of our country is already subjected under Bangkok domination. For example, Thailand opposes to the construction of one of the safety road allowing Preah Vihear to receive tourist from the Cambodian side. Until now this road remains always little feasible, in spite of Hun Sen promises. It is necessary to remind that the construction of this road cost to Chea Sophara to lose his position. As consequence we all know that Preah Vihear is already practically on Thai territory.

All our province of Koh Kong including our coastal islands and in the wide, a big part of our province of Battambang and the Western part of our province of Pursat situated on the West of Pursat city are already, largely, integrated economically and culturally into Thailand. Many families already send their children to study in Thailand and learn Thai language. Soon, with the construction of the railway Poipet-Sisophon, the integration of this region into Thailand will be even more. Then, maybe, we shall have one safety road between Sisophon and Siem Reap ville. Already at Poipet, Sok mentions that there is nowhere the slightest poster into cambodian language. The construction of the railway Battambang - Phnom Penh - Sihanoukville will never be realized.

About the situation in the East, Sok, our Cambodian on visit in Montreal, tells us that the situation is identical as in the western side. The question is to know where exactly the border between Thailand and Vietnam will be drawn. The maritime border between our two neighbors, are already decided and signed in August, 1997. There are also negotiations between Vietnam and Thailand to divide our hydrocarbon's wealth. According to Sok, never there will be an oil refinery in Cambodia, nor of electric stations using our gas or our petroleum. The Vietnamese and Thai companies will appropriate all our resources in hydrocarbons, will transform them into electricity and will resell back to Cambodians with high profits: profits on the sale of our hydrocarbons, profits on the sale to the Cambodians of the gasoline and the electricity, the profits in using of their companies, their engineers and their technicians. The Cambodian engineers and technicians formed in foreign languages and mainly of low level live always in the unemployment, with the exception of some rare exceptions those who manage to go to study in foreign universities.

Sok also points out that our rice produced on the West part of the country is sold to Thai and that our rice in the East is sold to Vietnam. This year about two million tons of Cambodian rice sold out to our two neighbors. But the Cambodian rice is kept for the domestic consumption at our neighbor’s countries. Because the Cambodian rice is the better quality than the Thai rice and the Vietnamese rice. It allows to these two countries to export two million tons of more Thai and Vietnamese rice. Then our neighbors sell back to Cambodians cracks of their rice to us in return.

Sok also clearly mentions that our politicians and the reporters of any newspaper in Cambodia, are not interested any more of going to visit our fellow countrymen on our borders, neither in the East nor on the West. Why?

Conclusion :

It is curious and unbelievable that our politicians ignore these aspects of the policy driven by Hun Sen which is leading our Nation to the disappearance very soon. So the western part of Cambodian people will live under the same fate as of our brothers living in the current Thailand and known under the name of Cambodians of Surin? While in the Eastern part, the Cambodian people will undergo to share their fate with the Cambodians of Kampuchea Krom? With as future, their total and definitive disappearance as Chams, if Cambodians unaware in following blindly our politicians. Have we already forgotten Sirik Matak's letter? The fate of the Hmongs? The fate of our sisters, brothers and fellow countrymen of the Kampuchea Krom who had fought for the Frenchmen, then for the Americans, and then for the Vietnamese communists and recently for the Vietnamese pro-US? The interests of major powers can change abruptly and turn of 180 degrees. For example the USA and Hanoi were enemy and fought against each other, now they are friends. After the Hanoi's victory, Hmongs and Cambodians of Kampuchea Krom who fought for the Americans were massacred by the Vietnamese communists. Washington closes eyes. Does the independence of Cambodia is interesting any major powers?

Fortunately, in Cambodia, as Sok mentioned, our fellow countrymen understands indeed the situation, which is contrary to the blindness of our politicians. They know, for example, that the last chance of our nation held in our culture where the writing culture is the essential part to assure and insure her perpetuity.

« Aksar Rolut, Cheat Roleay » is an unforgettable will bequeathed by our ancestors.

By the last word, we wish good courage and determination all those who work in very difficult conditions to develop and diffuse books in our language.

Merry Christmas to all, with a particular thought to the poor Cambodian children who, at best, manage to collect some garbage for the rests of foods thrown by the rich.

Below the Sirik Matak's letter.

Sirik Matak’s Letter to US embassador :

(April 13 (?), 1975)
Excellence and dear friend,
I thank you very sincerely for your letter and for your offer to leading us towards the freedom. Regrettably! I may not leave in a so cowardly way.
As for you and your big country, I would never believe a single moment that you would abandon people who chose freedom. You refused us your protection; we cannot do anything. You leave and I wish that you and your country find the happiness under the sky.
But, remind that, if I die here, in my country which I love, to bad indeed, because we were all born and we have to die one day. I committed only one mistake, it was to believe you and to believe the Americans.
Please accept, Excellence, my dear friend, my loyal and friendly feelings.
Sirik Matak

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The Buddhism, the Science and the Ethics

News of Cambodia N 0749-E

The Buddhism, the Science and the Ethics

Khemara Jati
Montreal, Quebec
December 20th, 2007

We publish below an article of a very important scientific discovery concerning the production of human stem cells from the skin cells. Before, stem cells are in the embryos which are to be destroyed. An ethic problem is raised. Because the question is to know when the human life starts to begin in the ethical point of view? In order to satisfy the women sexual freedom, one speculates that the human life begins few weeks after the conception. Such an idea is to allow the legal abortion. But it does not answer to the previous question in the abstract point of view.

In order to know when the human being life begins, what the Buddhism can answer?

1/. Let's begin with a lived story.

Before 1970, Chauvay Srok (Leader of district), on a tour have seen a magnificent trunk of eradicated Beng (ebony). The next day he sends a tractor to remove it next to his place. In the same evening he gets seriously sick. A Hora (a kind of medium) told him that a Neak Ta (a genius) is living in the trunk of this Beng. It is then necessary to handle it back to the same place. For repair, it is necessary to make offerings with prayers and meal prepared by the bigwigs. Cured the next day, the Chauvay Srok organizes ceremonies as promised. During the ceremony, the tradition wants the “Tès Krè Pi” or “Tès Krè Bei” (a public debate by two or three erudite bigwigs about the Buddhism). In this case it is a debate between two erudite monks sat on two platforms a little heightened in front of the audience. One of the bigwigs is well known for his high knowledge.

One of the questions: is the organization of this kind of ceremony in stipulated in the Buddhist rules?

After debate, the bigwig known for his knowledge summarizes the answer and said yes. Because Chauvay Srok has promised to organize this ceremony if he is cured. By doing so, he only keeps his promise. Because for a Buddhist, there is no genius, but there is a respect of the promise, the words, even for oneself. That is one of the Buddhism rules in the daily life. These regulations and principles become a rule of daily life for Buddhist.

2/. To explain about the stemp cells, let us remind some fundamental rules and regulations of the Buddhism:

A/. For the Buddhism, everything moves, nothing is permanent. Scientists of the material world have no choice but to accept this reality. This concept is becomes now the sciences and have been applied for the human beings even by Darwin. Even the universe, the earth, etc. are in constant evolution.

B/. The Greeks, the same time, invented the logical reasoning through Buddha philosophy. The difference remains in the investigation domains. As the heirs of the Mesopotamian and Egyptian civilizations, the Greeks use it through mathematics, physics, cosmology and philosophy. For Buddha, he uses it by introspecting and by meditating way.

More or less explicitly Buddha utters the following concepts:

a/. Everything moves, the stability appears only in the surface for the man, for the human beings as well as for everything. It is the reality of every day, even for the earth and for the universe.

b/. The metempsychosis concept is subject of serious debate. It is necessary to remind that during Buddha time, any invisible existence is ignored, as the micro-organisms, the germs, the viruses. More Buddha had a long life and even very long at that time. This concept reveals the existence of the soul which is generalized more or less explicitly, in all other religions of the world such as the Christianity and the Islam. Buddha extends this concept to animals, to all human beings, even plants. Without fruits and vegetables, there is not possible for food.

Buddha convinces his followers of these concepts but never imposes these ideas to anyone. He teaches the people in general by reason and meditation through the daily life experience, such as the suffering in any life for example. Buddha never introduces the miracle. Anything is a rational factual explainable. For Buddha, there is no supernatural neither of guardian genius, nor any inexplicable matter.

C/. For some or rather Buddha promotes the democratic exchange of ideas in order to strengtening knowledge amongst people in the communities. We wish :

§ That people return to the way of organizing “Tès Krè Pi” or “Tès Krè Bei”, the traditional democratic discussions between two or three erudite bigwigs to spread knowledge through Buddhism, with possibility of having question from the audience.

§ In the same way as these religious discussions, it is useful that seminars of this kind are held between specialists over certain periods of our history. Proposal subjects, not exhaustive : « the reasons of the superiority of Ayuthia on Angkor », « The key points of the Angkor civilization : its highlight and its decline » or « The consequences of the Portuguese arrival following by the other Europeans in Asia », etc.

The democracy, begins at first with the democracy in the free and democratic debates in sessions of « Tès Krè Pi or Krè Bei » between erudite bigwigs. It is a real debating democratic lesson which will leading to the seminars between historians and similar sessions in order to listen to a “specialist” of that kind.

In the history cited above, the answer of the scholars about Buddhism, answers perfectly the Buddha's principles: there is neither guardian genius, nor the other supernatural phenomena, but it is question of the true word for oneself and for the others as well. It is of ethics life of the Buddhist principles which is the truthfulness (nityam).

3/. So for the Buddhism every human being begins from the conception and even before. Because there is a manifestation of the soul to be born before there is birth. Thus the Buddhist ethics joins the Christian ethics: the human being begins at least from the conception. Then the abortion is a crime. But it is questions of the women sexual freedom which leads to the societal problem. In that case the Buddhist ethics is corrupted and failed.

Then an important question remains without specific answer : when a human being is considered as dead ? With the progress of the science, in some case, a dead body can be maintained in vegetative almost infinitely. Certain human beings can eventually wake up after remaining in coma for years. Before, to consider death while the heart stops, now, it is the brain which is stopping functioning. Will the future reserve us the other definitions? With the brain transplant?

Nowadays, the human beings try to keep live more and more for a long time while trying to maintaining relatively young mentally and physically. The world known architect Brazilian Oscar Niemeyer, the one who built the new capital Brasilia of his country, has just celebrated his hundred years on December 15th, 2007. He always leads an active professional life and always continues to build notably in Spain. Let us remind that 2 000 years ago, the life duration of the Normans were of 35 years in average. Ramses II and Jayavarman VII who lived until more than 90 years were exceptions which confirm the rule.

In the developed countries, the statistic gave that half of the children born in these days will live at least hundred years. How about life in Cambodia?

In the future, some scientists advance idea that it is possible to give birth in artificial wombs. How will answer the ethics of the different religions ? Anyway in a predictable future it is not possible to create the life from the sluggish material. To bring up conception in artificial wombs, it is necessary at least cells from a woman and from a man.

2 500 years ago, there have been no Buddhist fundamentalist. It is necessary note also that the Buddhism gains the intellectual's in Europe and in North America.

Below the article concerning the possibility of producing stem cells from the cells of the skin and not from a human embryo. So the ethics is respected.

Khemara Jati

Annexe :

Stem cell breakthrough uses human skin not embryos

by Mira Oberman Tue Nov 20, 5:22 PM ET
CHICAGO (AFP) - In a major breakthrough, scientists announced Tuesday they have generated stem cells from human skin which could help in the fight against major diseases and sidestep the battle over using embryonic cells.

Stem cell cultures are held up in a US lab. In a major breakthrough, scientists announced Tuesday they have generated potent stem cells from human skin which could help in the fight against major diseases and sidestep the battle over using embryonic cells.(AFP/Getty Images/File)

The discovery opens the door for promising research into using the blank-slate stem cells to test new drugs and study how diseases function without being forced to destroy embryos in the process, which has led to legal restrictions on research in the United States.

The researchers in Japan and the United States have also eliminated a major hurdle to using stem cells in treatments. The stem cells could eventually be generated with a specific patient's genetic code, eliminating the risk that the body would reject transplanted tissues or organs.

The new method is expected to rapidly advance research in the treatment of cancer, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, diabetes, arthritis, spinal cord injuries, strokes, burns and heart disease because scientists will have much greater access to stem cells.

"(The) work is monumental in its importance to the field of stem cell science and its potential impact on our ability to accelerate the benefits of this technology to the bedside," said Deepak Srivastava, director of the Gladstone Institute of Cardiovascular Disease.

A scientist conducts research on stem cells at a laboratory. In a major breakthrough, scientists announced Tuesday they have generated potent stem cells from human skin which could help in the fight against major diseases and sidestep the battle over using embryonic cells. Photo:/AFP

"Not only does this discovery enable more research, it offers a new pathway to apply the benefits of stem cells to human disease."

Stem cells are seen as a possible magic bullet because they can be developed into any of the 220 types of cells in the human body.

But research has been limited in the United States because of ethical concerns, and very few labs have had the resources and technical expertise to work with embryonic stem cells.

The new method is fairly straightforward and can be repeated by standard labs with relative ease, said study author James Thomson of the University of Wisconsin at Madison.

"My personal barometer of optimism has gone up a lot," Thomson said in a conference call.
"Funding is finally going to go up because this does remove the political debate. And as we engage more and more people in the United States things are going to accelerate."

The White House hailed the discovery as a means of solving medical problems "without compromising either the high aims of science or the sanctity of human life."

Two teams of researchers were simultaneously able to transform the skin cells by using a retrovirus to insert four different genes into the cells.

The Japanese team, led by Shinya Yamanaka of Kyoto University, managed to produce one stem cell line out of every 5,000 cells.

"This efficiency may sound very low, but it means that from one experiment, with a single ten centimetres dish, you can get multiple iPS (induced pluripotent stem) cell lines," he said, referring to a stem cell type capable of creating any type of cell in the body except those of the placenta.

The US team, led by Thomson, reprogrammed one of every 10,000 cells but did so without the use of a gene that is known to cause cancer.

Both techniques have the risk of mutation because the cells retained copies of the virus used to deliver the genes.

The crucial next step is to find a way to switch on the genes that cause the skin cells to regress into stem cells rather than relying on the retrovirus to insert the genes.

"It's almost inconceivable at the pace this science is moving that we won't find a way to do this," stem cell researcher Douglas Melton of Harvard University told Science magazine.

The ability to design patient-specific and disease-specific stem cells ought to help push research forward even before the mutation risk is eliminated.

"These cells should be extremely useful in understanding disease mechanisms and screening effective and safe drugs," Yamanaka said. "If we can overcome safety issues, we may be able to use human iPS cells in cell transplantation therapies."

While the skin cells may eventually prove to be more useful than embryonic stem cells, Yamanaka cautioned that it would be "premature to conclude that iPS cells can replace embryonic stem cells."

"We are still a long way from finding cures or therapies from stem cells and we don't know what processes will be effective," he added.

Thomson cautioned it could be a couple years before researchers resolve all the problems with iPS cells and can confirm that they do not eventually act differently than embryonic stem cells.

Thomson's paper will be published Thursday in the online edition of Science magazine. Yamanaka's paper will be published in the November 30 edition of the journal Cell. Both were released Tuesday.

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Leading Rights Groups Support UN Envoy

18/12/2007Cambodia / UN

Leading Rights Groups Support UN Envoy

Version français

Five leading international human rights organizations today called upon the Cambodian government to respect its international human rights commitments as well as United Nations officials mandated to monitor them.

The five organizations – Human Rights Watch, the Asian Human Rights Commission, the Asian Forum for Human Rights and Development (FORUM-ASIA), the International Federation for Human Rights (FIDH), and the World Organisation against Torture (OMCT) – expressed deep concern about the Cambodian government’s ongoing unwillingness to engage with the UN secretary-general’s special representative on human rights in Cambodia, Professor Yash Ghai.

Following critical remarks by the special representative at the end of a 10-day fact-finding mission to Cambodia, Cambodian Prime Minister Hun Sen on December 12 called Ghai – a distinguished professor of constitutional law in Kenya who has been special representative since 2005 – a “human rights tourist” and vowed to never meet him.

In his closing press conference on December 10, Ghai raised concerns that the government is acting under the cover of “development” to justify widespread land grabbing and illegal forced evictions of Cambodia’s urban and rural poor. He noted that communities forced off their land have little judicial recourse or legal protection because the judiciary is corrupt and the Land Law is not properly implemented. Ghai noted that victims are increasingly ending up in prison for trying to defend their land and their human rights


“Professor Ghai has drawn attention to critical concerns shared by the wider international human rights community,” said Basil Fernando, executive director of the Hong Kong-based Asian Human Rights Commission. “There’s no denying the facts. Expropriation of the land of Cambodia’s poor is reaching a disastrous level, the courts are politicized and corrupt, and impunity for human rights violators remains the norm.”

Government officials charged that the UN envoy was trying to incite Cambodians to oppose the government and rejected as “inaccurate” and overly negative Ghai’s assessment of Cambodia’s rights situation.

“Yash Ghai is not an isolated maverick. All of his findings have been repeatedly raised in the past by local and international rights groups, UN agencies, and bilateral and multilateral donors,” said Sara Colm, senior researcher for New York-based Human Rights Watch. “Donors who commit millions of dollars to Cambodia each year for poverty alleviation, judicial reform and economic development should not condone government policies that result in thousands of Cambodians losing their homes, their livelihoods, and in some cases their lives.”

A Foreign Ministry spokesman told the press on December 11 that government officials were unable to meet Ghai during his visit because they were “busy trying to develop the country.”
In Ratanakiri province, armed soldiers and police attempted to disrupt a meeting between Ghai and indigenous villagers facing confiscation of their land, claiming Ghai had no right to meet villagers because he had not received written permission from local authorities. Ghai’s terms of reference authorize him to travel freely within Cambodia and to visit prisons without prior approval.

“When gun-toting soldiers threaten a UN official, one can only imagine how much more difficult it is for impoverished farmers in the countryside to assert their rights,” said Eric Sottas, director of the Geneva-based World Organization against Torture.

“Defenders of economic and social rights in Cambodia are also facing high risks, particularly when they defend the victims of forced evictions,” said Souhayr Belhassen, president of the Paris-based International Federation for Human Rights.

In a public speech on December 12, Hun Sen said that Ghai’s missions to Cambodia only “caused trouble” and criticized him for not focusing on problems in Kenya, which he said was “one hundred times worse” than Cambodia. Hun Sen extended his criticism of the UN’s human rights mechanisms by admonishing the United Nations to stop issuing negative reports about Burma and said that Cambodia would defend Burma at the UN Human Rights Council, making him the first world leader to express support for the Burmese government’s recent crackdown


“Hun Sen’s attacks on Professor Ghai were outrageous, especially since the prime minister did not question the veracity of Ghai’s findings,” said Anselmo Lee, executive director of Bangkok-based FORUM-ASIA. “Hun Sen’s statements show contempt not only for the United Nations, but also the Burmese democracy movement.”

The 1991 Paris Agreements provided for the UN secretary-general to appoint a special envoy to monitor the human rights situation in Cambodia. As a party to the Paris Peace Agreements and numerous international human rights treaties, Cambodia has committed itself to respect and protect the rights of its population (see [English] or [Khmer]).

“Hun Sen’s tirade against the UN is the latest in a long series of attacks and lack of cooperation with Ghai and the three UN Special Representatives who preceded him,” said Fernando. “Rather than publicly rebuking the UN, the Cambodian government should meet with Yash Ghai and start seriously working on the recommendations included in his report.”

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Yash Ghai to Hun Sen

Yash Ghai to Hun Sen:
One cannot hide a dead elephant with a basket
Cambodia Office of the HighCommissioner for Human Rights
Special Representative of the Secretary-General for human rights in Cambodia

Phnom Penh 17 December 2007: The Special Representative of the United Nations Secretary General for Human Rights in Cambodia is issuing today the following clarification.
“The Special Representative is an independent expert appointed by the Secretary General of the United Nations. His mandate is to monitor the respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms in the country, to help the Government and the Cambodian people in ensuring that the Cambodian laws and the standards accepted by the State are effectively observed, foster international cooperation in the field of human rights, and report annually to the newly established United Nations Human Rights Council.
As Special Representative, he is not an employee of the United Nations and does not receive a salary. His work is pro bono. Mr. Yash Ghai is a professor of constitutional law and a human rights defender, with a lifelong experience in promoting rule of the law in many countries. He does not represent Kenya. He represents the human rights principles enshrined in the Charter of the United Nations, of which Cambodia is a Member State, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the International Human Rights treaties, several of which have been ratified by Cambodia, and are part of Cambodian law.
The Special Representative does not intend to dialogue with the Government through the media. He has sought meetings with several ministers well in advance of his visit. They either did not respond or refused to meet him. In the absence of such meetings, he has described publicly his main concerns as he is duty bound to do. These concerns will be addressed in detail in his forthcoming report. He hopes that the Government will respond to the substance of his assessment. He is ready to discuss it in detail, and will listen to the views of the Government at any time. The door of dialogue must always remain open. To have dialogue one must have interlocutors and the Special representative will pursue his efforts in this direction.An honest scrutiny of the reports of the Special Representatives since 1993, shows that progress in the area of the rule of the law and the administration of justice, where they occurred, were duly reported, as any fair assessment requires. At the same time, matters of concern, such as those reported during previous visits, have continued to be highlighted. These are serious concerns for the lives of many Cambodians. These issues will not go away. They deserve attention. As a Cambodian proverb goes, one cannot hide a dead elephant with a basket. The role of the Special Representative is to understand these concerns, to draw the Government's attention to them, and work with it, with the Cambodian people and the international community to address them.
Lastly, it is important to clarify that the Special Representative has not called for the international community to cut its support to Cambodia. Rather, he has encouraged Member States, as bound by the Charter of the United Nations, to pursue their assistance efforts, while playing a more critical role in recognising human rights realities in Cambodia, the understanding of which the Special Representative mandate aims at contributing.”
End of statement.

Ponchaud : Report of Mission in Cambodia

News From Cambodia N° 0748-F (suite)

From 16 till 27 September 1990

(Unofficially translated from the original in French by Khemara Jati)

I was in Cambodia by the request of the BPAC, officially invited by Caritas Internationalis to visit its projects.

Already in 1982 I had taken steps to reach Cambodia through the UNICEF: the Cambodian government had granted me a visa, but the authorities of Hanoi had removed it back from me. A second step made in 1982. It was without answer.

I was able to go anywhere by walk, by motorcycle, by car, quite freely; I was able to speak to whom I wanted, without having the impression to be watched. Most of the time, I was in Phnom Penh, but I went to Moat Krasas (15 km in the southeast), to Kompong Chhnang (90 km in the North), to Kompong Speu (50 km on the West).

General Impression

Coming from Ho Chi Minh City, we are hardly confused by arriving to Phnom Penh: a city as ruined as dirty and deformed. We do not practically see ruins, but most of the houses are darkened by the rains of the monsoon, many apartment buildings do not have windows anymore nor of doors, they were replaced by boxes, steel sheets. Except for the big arteries, streets were not maintained and are often kicked down, muddy, filled with puddles, at this end of rainy season; most of the pavements are broken, garbage are dawdle in spite of an important service of garbage dump with brooms and even endowed recently with trucks « Propreté de Paris » still registered number 75; wild grasses grow almost everywhere: Véal Men (space of the big popular gatherings, the Congress, etc.) look like a garbage dump; even the “Phnom”, in the center of the city is not very well maintained, although the outside of the pagoda and the stupa which surmount it are repaired.

Some districts however are clean, apparently intended to be visited by foreigners: that of the « monument of Victoire » (formerly « monument of the Independence »), with its beautiful flowerbeds, that of the Royal Palace, Cambodiana with its 250 luxurious rooms and its motels, the bank of Mekong, in front of the royal palace. Some of coconut palms planted by Pol Pot give to the city an aspect even more exotic than before.

Phnom Penh appears as an overpopulated city, with numerous squatters living in the empty apartments, camp in sheds of bamboo inside the surrounding the pagoda walls, or sleep on pavements. It is a city full of life, with an intense traffic of cyclos, bicycles, motorcycles: during Pchoum Ben, the big Holiday of the deceased, September 19th, motorcycles circulated on several rows, covering the main axes of the city. Some cars cleared a road by honking non-stop. The traffic is very anarchy, agents try hard to put it a little of order.

Phnom Penh is fascinating by the number of its markets full of stocked, where the crowds are anticipated, but also by the multitude of shops of retails of scraps in any kinds, mini traders, selling some fruits, cigarettes in unity, some gasoline at a liter bottle at the edge of pavements.

In the first glance, we have the impression of the similar people (who lived here before) and at the same time very different from the one who populated the city before 1975: fewer Chinese (these are gradually bought back the city center and their shops), more Cambodians and especially Vietnamese. The Khmers seem very poor, they are farmers who come to earn in Phnom Penh or who fled the fights. The accent of people living in Phnom Penh is not the same any more.

During these ten days, I was able to note around thirty words or new expressions, or at least the generalized usage in the people, of the Pol Pot cultural revolution : “hôp = to eat”; “tveu chivapéap = to earn the life” (with the harmonious: “khméan chéavaphéap”); “saphéapkar = situation”; “niyéay kampuchéaw = speak Khmer”; “ aharathan = canteen”; “téarokathan = daycare”; “méteysala = nursery school”; “prachéachon = population”; “kal pi sangkum = under the previous regimes”; “sappada = week”; “komret vapathor = cultural level”; “krousar = spouse”; “saum aèkaphéap = to agree”; “avathaméan = absence ; vathaméan = presence”; “tveu satésanéam = to tell biography”; “samasaphéap = counts participants number”, etc.

The name of streets have changed with the political changes: the former bld Monivong (become “Prachétipatai”, “democracy” under Lon Nol), is renamed “Son Ngoc Minh”, one of the Vietminh's supporter in the war of liberation against the French colonialist; the ex-bld Norodom (become then « October 9th ») becomes then under the name of “Tou Samuth”, founder of the Cambodian communist Party; the bld Sihanouk became “Sivotha”, younger brother of the King Norodom who had rebelled against him en1860; bld Kampuchea Krom is called « Friendship Kampuchea-Vietnam »; the bld Mao Tsé Toung became “Kéo Moni”, of the name of a Khmer communist representative of the end of the 50s; the road of the friendship Khméro-soviétique became « Soviet Union »; the road Kossomak, dedicated to the souvenir of the Queen mother was renamed “Ho Chi Minh”; the bld in front of Chamkar Mon is called “Achar Sva”, instigator of the first anti-French revolt of 1864; the quay Sisowath became « bld Lenin »; the road in the front of Bassac became “Karl Marx”. The street Trasak Paem remains the same, because the gardener who has this name had, at the end of the XIIIth century, knocked down the Khmer monarchy. On the other hand the traversing roads in between the big boulevards has given by the N° of the American style. Generally Hospitals have the name of the historic dates of the Cambodian revolution: « The Revolution » (Calmette), « The April 17th » (Hospital of the Monk), « The December 2nd » (Ang Duong). Etc.

The description could be raised on Kompong Chhnang: a phantom city, wild grasses growing everywhere, a crowd of horses grazing the herb on the city palace, the beautiful buildings of the provincial capital. Only the new monuments decorate the city, as all the provincial capitals: a « monument of the victory », reply of Phnom Penh as well as a monument celebrating the indestructible friendship between Cambodia and Vietnam.

From Kompong Speu, there is nothing left, otherwise some ruins lining an asphalted road: houses were shaved by bombardments even before 1975. A new city is build along the main road N° 4 leading to Kompong Som port, with magnificent school buildings of the Executive members of the Party.


Political situation

It is difficult to see the political situation from inside of Phnom Penh. It is more by statements made by the different responsible of outside that we can better make an idea.

It is true that most of the people seem appreciate the wind of liberation blowing on the country for about a year, even if many aspects are negative. But the regime remains [controlling by] police and the Party have the monopoly of all the political activities, connecting by the Front as the organ to operate of its directives. Any newcomers have to be declared to the chief of district, the control is strict, but in the patrol is always underground. Fifteen minutes after I arrived at a Protestant minister who had troubles « with the police », two agents of the district came to take information of my visit. The political discussions are not often than in the past.

Prisons remain: Not only T3 (the central Phnom Penh prison), but also the underground prisons, of which that of Tuol Sleng (next to the museum of the horror of the Khmer rouge genocide), which is not allowing to any visit. According to the International Red Cross director Committee, there are promises that prisoners can be possibly visited soon by this body. I met three refugees who returned from Thailand camps: the one returned by himself in 1982, but he is closely under full control by the police for confessional reasons; the other one returned of himself as "lost" (« vongveng phleuv »): he was not able to settle in the city even in Phnom Penh, but in the suburb and seem does not worried; the third returned by the International Red Cross means and is not worried. The "lost", even they were former Khmer rouge leaders, were reinstated in the Khmer society, and hold a special card of "lost person". They are the object of a discreet control. According to the Pol Pot's rules but in the new version, it happens that people are arrested without reason, and that they have to prove their innocence during several months in the preventive prison.


Everyone wait and wait for the peace, but without much believing from [this regime]. Many people are afraid of the return of the Khmers rouge as a possible eventuality, exactly because of the corruption of the current regime.

Vietnamese presence

Officially the Vietnamese army left the country on September 26th, 1989. At first sight, the presence of a vietnamese colony is not seen, in Cambodia. Nevertheless, by walking in streets, we see Vietnamese everywhere: in houses, in the market, on the edge of rivers. The district of Russey Kéo, as well as the places behind the catholic village are exclusively populated by the Vietnamese. On the other hand there is practically none in Chrui Changvar. All the craft, notably in the construction are under their control, not only because traditionally the Khmers are less artisans (they build however very well their pagoda and the other buildings), but especially because the young Khmers are forced to enroll in the army, while the young Vietnamese are exempted from it.

At Kompong Chhnang, in « Psar Krom », it is necessary to have good glasses to discover Khmers! One Sunday morning, the radio diffused very loudly (in full volume) of the Vietnamese songs from the island which is located not far from that. According to the President of the Vietnamese Association of the province, the Vietnamese residents would be among 10.000 there.

It seems that the Vietnamese colonies of Cambodia are amongst the poor people who come looking for a subsistence which is better than in their homeland. They are however well supervised by the Association of the Vietnamese Residents of Cambodia which is controlling directly by the Embassy of Vietnam in Phnom Penh or by the Consulate in Battambang. Moreover, this embassy issues Cambodian identity cards blocked by a line, allowing those Vietnamese to freely circulate between both countries. However, it is difficult to advance a precise figure. Some people speak Khmer, because they are Vietnamese living in Cambodia but deported in 1970. Others do not absolutely speak any cambodian. They are (Vietnamese) living by group together amongst them, because isolated; they are object of the vindication by the Khmers. A Vietnamese child of Arey Ksach (on the western bank of the Mekong, opposite to Phnom Penh) thrashed by his classmates and had to leave the school.

Even in ministries, nobody denies the presence of 6.000 Vietnamese experts (cadres). As for the army, they are present, although it is impossible to estimate the number. One speaks about it as « our friends ». For sure, without their presence Battambang, Siemréap and Kompong Thom would be in the hands of Khmer rouges. At the beginning of September in the newspapers of Bangkok one could moreover read governmental statements according to which the Cambodian security of the Siemréap and Battambang provinces were doubled by Vietnamese soldiers. Foreigners were able to meet, in Vietnam, military brought back recently from Cambodia: they made a profit because they were paid in dollars. As for the police and the Interior Ministry, according to a Vietnamese, the staff would consist for an important proportion of Vietnamese but dressed in Cambodian dress. A multitude of small details confirms this presence: a saleswoman of cigarettes of the corner said: « they speak to me in vietnamese ». During a small collision between a motorcycle and a bicycle, the Cambodian military who went up the motorcycle spoke only the vietnamese; a foreign friend taking a beer in Siemréap heard the "Cambodian" military speaking between them only in vietnamese.

The Vietnamese seem to be useless everywhere, but hold the whole country in hand. « The capital of Cambodia, is Ho Chi Minh-city », said frankly a young man. The monument of the independence renames « Monument of Victoire », and the road flanking it called « Ho Chi Minh » showing the Vietnamese carelessness regarding the Khmer people.

The Church

Since the decrees of April granting the freedom of cult to the different religions, the Church of Cambodia finds a new vitality, but has to face, once again, the presence of many Vietnamese colonies.


Moat Krasas

Two communities coexist: first a small group of six cambodian families, consisting essentially of young people and women, without any men adult. These Khmers lived in approximately 3 kilometres in the North of their ancient village where lands were taken by the Mekong. Another group includes a dozen of Vietnamese families living in boats and in houses built on the place of the former Vietnamese parish. The Khmers are very poor, while the Vietnamese, living with the fishing are relatively rich. The Vietnamese built a small church, thanks to the grant of P. Thom Dunleavy. The mass is celebrated every Sunday in cambodian, animated by Cambodians, with the gospel reading in vietnamese. A young from Phnom Penh helps in the catechism's education. Although speaking in cambodian (most of these Vietnamese are of former of Cambodia) seems not really appreciate this liturgy in Khmer.



The Christians count 124 families of 381 persons. They are organized by a mixed committee including 5 Cambodians and 3 Vietnameses. At present the Christians have officially authorized to meet at Phâl (approximately 180 persons, especially Cambodians), and at Bora, sister of the P. Benedictine Bernard, married to a Vietnamese soldier (200 persons, of whom some are Vietnameses).

This responsible asks permission to build a small place of cult close to the ancient church. The authorities of the village and the city hall authorized it, but the Consul of Vietnam in Battambang opposes to it, because he would like to impose the presence of the President of the Association of the Vietnamese of the province, two others of his agents in the committee. « The Vietnamese have more experience, » said the Consul.


Chrétiens, montagnards

By a French planter of passage in Phnom Penh, we learnt that an important group of montagnards of Quida, of the Centre Vietnam came to establish in the region of Ratanakiri. Their territories in Vietnam were occupied by Vietnamese come from the North, and even, in the sector of three borders, had encroached on 20 km inside the Cambodian territory.

The Vietnamese Christians

By coming in Cambodia, I did not try to meet the Vietnamese catholic communities of Cambodia, otherwise the small group of Moat Krasas. I however accompanied two American priests who went to Kompong Chhnang to celebrate there the mass for the Vietnamese. A small community of hundred persons met on the terrace of a market building, decorated in the colors of Vatican. Usually the priests are celebrating in American, with translation into vietnamese. I was invited for the meal following by the mass: all the male participants of these feasts were members of the (political) Association of the Vietnamese Residents of Cambodia, and made no mystery of their relations whith the embassy. The President was a Christian of Krauchmar who was a child when I was priest and that I had tried, in vain, to take him to Kompong Cham in 1970. A member of the Association invited me to go to Vat Champa, where is a big Vietnamese church.

There would be about 14 places of cults for the Vietnamese. It does not go without raising problems. The solution engages the future of the Church in Cambodia. If the Church has to show itself attentive to the spiritual needs of the Vietnamese immigrants and try to answer it, it does not have to be a dupe of the political aims from this immigration: it seems that Vietnam wants to use the Church as one of the means to colonize the country, by favoring the grouping of her nationals. By the way to Ho Chi Minh City, I had indirect confirmation by a member of the patriotic Church who wants to organize a visit of Vietnamese priests in Cambodia next December. As long as the political situation is not secure, the Church cannot offer but only the minimum of religious services to the Vietnamese immigrants, and in Khmer language, at least in the official demonstrations.

It is advisable for the Church to show itself watchful not to repeat certain errors of past, while at the end of the XIXth and the beginning of the XXth century and in another context, the Church, being inspired by colonial plans, favored the Vietnamese settling in Cambodia. It was worth of being considered by the Cambodians as doubling foreigner, and by her previous history, and by her communities. The evangelisation of the Khmers was of this fact compromised during almost century.

While the Church of Cambodia is reborn of its efforts, with the fragility that one know, while it has the opportunity and the will to offer the service to the Cambodian people of Cambodia, an inconvenient pastoral action and one-sidedly with the immigrants where the presence is negatively seen by the public opinion, risk to burden heavily the Cambodian evangelisation hope. The pastoral action in Cambodia requires a caution and calls coordination.

The vitality of the Khmer Christians, the coolness of their faith, their enjoyment to meet amongst themselves together has given me a great moment of the Acts of the Apostles. Although the future is uncertain, they are sign of Hope.

François PONCHAUD, le 1.10.90

Khmer Krom and Prey Nokor territory

Monday, December 17, 2007

Khmer Krom people protest about land disputes in Prey Nokor (HCMC)
15 December 2007
By Mayarith
Radio Free Asia
Translated from Khmer by Socheata

A source from Kampuchea Krom (South Vietnam) indicated that numerous Khmer Krom people are facing the stopping and the arrest by the Vietnamese authority, as they were gathering to demand their lands back in front of the office of Vietnamese MPs in Prey Nokor (Ho Chi Minh City).

Last night’s land protest demonstration by Khmer Krom people is considered as a renewal of demonstration activities in this month of December, in spite of the fact that numerous Khmer Krom monks were sent to jail by the Vietnamese authority.“…right now, the police are pushing people in my group into a truck. These people are resisting and they are refusing to climb into the truck. They all want to die together in Prey Nokor…” this call for help by Khmer Krom people took place last night, when a group of about 150 Khmer Krom demonstrators were prevented by the Vietnamese police (from holding their demonstration) in front of the MPs office in Prey Nokor.

There is no report indicating how many Khmer Krom people were arrested or faced oppression because of their demands to get their farmlands back.

The protesters claimed that the Vietnamese authority refused to return several hectares of their farmlands after displacing these Khmer Krom people out of their villages and their lands in 1979.

The displacements of Khmer Krom people took place during the war between former Khmer Rouge soldiers and Vietnamese soldiers in Motr Chrouk province, Kampuchea Krom, and at that time, the Vietnamese army forced the population to move out. However, several years after the Khmer Krom people returned to their lands, the Vietnamese still refuse to return their lands back.

Chau In, the leader of last night demonstrators, yelled out his demand: “Right now, our Khmer Krom brothers and sisters have no freedom rights at all, look at it, they (the Vietnamese) do anything they want on us, they oppress us anyway they like. Therefore, I am calling to international organizations in the world to help resolve the problem for Khmer Krom people who are losing their lands, we demand that our lands be returned back to us, the rightful owners.”

Phy Ny, a Khmer Krom woman, yelled out: “Please help us, the Vietnamese police is squeezing us, they oppress us very strongly, they have electric baton, knives, guns, they threaten us and force us to enter the truck (for arrest). We refuse to go, my group would rather die, we’d rather die than leave if the communist cadres do not resolve our farmlands issue for us. If I leave, I won’t have anything to eat, everyday, I have to work as a laborer for others, and a large plot of my rice field land was lost…”The Vietnamese authority could not be reached last night.

Massive Invasion of the Vietnamese Settlers

News of Cambodia N 0748-E

CAMBODIA : Massive Invasion Of The Vietnamese Settlers

Khemara Jati
Montreal, Quebec
December 15th, 2007

We publish below the position of the SRP regarding the massive presence of the Vietnamese settlers in Cambodia, according to a recent statement published by the Party of the same name and François Ponchaud's eyewitness in his “Report of Mission in Cambodia”, from 16 to 27 September 1990.

To read François Ponchaud's report, it is necessary to know that this latest is French and Vatican catholic priest. It is also important to focus this journey in the following context:

§ November 9th, 1989: fall of the Berlin Wall, the prelude of the USSR's dislocation.
§ July 18th, 1990: In his way of returning from Moscow, the US State Secretary James Baker, for having noticed with conviction of the imminent dislocation of the USSR, just after getting out of the plane, he declares: « The United-States of America withdrew support from Cambodia guerilla coalition ».
§ September 5th, 1990: The US State Secretary James Baker announces that the United States will discuss henceforth directly with Hun Sen. Hanoi applauds this American decision.

It is also necessary to remind that Japan had already engaged its relation with Hanoi since February 8th, 1972, which is about a month before the historic handshaking between Mao and Nixon in Beijing on February 21st, 1972, while China was in plenty Cultural Revolution. Also let us remind that this handshaking was headed by secret negotiations between the USA and China, through France since 1970 (We produce the report on these negotiations after this article). The mission of Ponchaud was thus organized about a week following the direct relations between the USA and Hun Sen’s announcement.

Khemara Jati would prefer, in these conditions, to raise to the SRP and its members the following questions:

1) Now the city of Siem Reap and a big part of our western provinces use the electricity provided from Thailand. So our western provinces are already dependent on Thailand in electrical energy. Does not Thailand already have an enormous means of making pressure on Cambodia? A country depending in electrical energy of a foreign country, can it be independent? Is there any developed country in the world be political independents in that condition?

2) The World Bank declares financing the electric line's construction with high tension from Vietnam to feed electricity in our provinces of the Northeast and the East. In these conditions can Cambodia be independent from Vietnam?

3) Vietnam is going to build two hydroelectric powers in our provinces of the Northeast. Is not it another unbearable dependence vis-à-vis of our Eastern neighbor?

4) Japan is helping Vietnam to build highways connecting our provinces of the Northeast with the East vietnamese port to sell our wealth of this region by a Vietnamese port. Is it in the Cambodian national interests?

5) The USA intends to build a highway with three ways in each direction between Prey Nokor and Phnom Penh, while we need such a highway between Phnom Penh and Sihanoukville. Why this new facility granted to the vietnamese settlers to come even more numerous into Cambodia?

6) The development Centers build on our borders. The good roads are build of these Centers towards our neighbors but only the bad roads of these Centers towards Phnom Penh. Are these Centers going to use Cambodians as administrators, engineers and technicians? The productions of these Centers are they going to develop our port of Sihanoukville or on the contrary they are not going to enrich the ports of Prey Nokor and Bangkok? With the using of massive Vietnamese and Thai as administrators, engineers and technicians?

7) Are all these constructions be build with engineers, technicians and the others who are none of them are not Cambodian at all? Does it explain that 300 000 graduated Cambodian are always living under unemployed?

The following are :

a) SRP’s position on massive illegal vietnamese settlers.
b) Le « Compte rendu de Mission au Cambodge, du 16 au 27 septembre 1990 » in the next posting
c) Rapport sur les négociations secrètes entre les USA et la Chine de 1970 à 1972, in the next posting.

SRP Exposes CPP, Ranariddh, Yu Hokkri in Illegal Vietnamese Immigrants Deal

SEP20071212045001 Phnom Penh khmernews WWW-Text in Cambodian 11 Dec 07
[Report by Roat Visal]

The Cambodian National Assembly passed the Immigration Law in 2001. However, not only has the Hun Sen government failed to enforce this law but it has tried to cover up the presence of illegal Vietnamese immigrants by allowing them to live in the country and helping these millions of Hun Sen's Vietnamese brothers and sisters to fill forms and documents. Besides receiving documents making them Cambodian citizens, millions of illegal Vietnamese immigrants also have been issued voter cards that allow them to vote for the Cambodian People's Party [CPP] officials, especially for Hun Sen, Heng Samrin, and Chea Sim, so that they would continue to wield power for a long time and keep repaying Vietnam for the service it rendered them.

The CPP officials are not the only ones to have legitimized the immigration of the Vietnamese all over the country, the FUNCINPEC [National United Front for an Independent, Neutral, and Peaceful Cambodia] Party when Prince Ranariddh was its historical president also connived with the CPP in forcefully helping these illegal Vietnamese immigrants. For instance, former Minister of Interior Yu Hokkri co-signed with Sar Kheng, the then co-minister of interior, an order in April 2003 permitting the illegal Vietnamese spearheaded by an army of prostitutes to establish associations in 19 provinces and cities throughout the country.

Now, Yu Hokkri, secretary-general of the Norodom Ranariddh Party [NRP], and Prince Ranariddh are making great noise about their so-called campaign to oppose the illegal immigrants. The Cambodian public understands that this vociferation is just a maneuver or a dark scheme of dishonest politicians in the NRP.

The Sam Rainsy Party [SRP] counts the enforcement of the Immigration Law among the 10 measures set for the SRP government. This measure is that the SRP government will thoroughly and effectively enforce this law as of 2008 because to let the illegal Vietnamese immigrants live in full anarchy throughout the country like this constitutes a most impertinent violation of Cambodia's sovereignty, and the presence of these illegal Vietnamese is also a demographic war to implement the Vietnamization of Cambodia. The most serious danger to the survival of the Cambodian nation and people is if the present ruling CPP continues to rule the country.

Hun Sen, Heng Samrin, and Chea Sim of the CPP are taking care of the millions of illegal Vietnamese in Cambodia because Vietnam has installed them in power through the 7 January 1979 Vietnamese aggression against Cambodia. Another reason is that these millions of Vietnamese constitute an important force that has voted for the group of Vietnamese lackeys in Phnom Penh so that they can keep on wielding power and controlling Cambodia on behalf of Vietnam according to the late Ho Chi Minh's Indochinese Federation policy, which is to make Cambodia a Vietnamese province in the future just as the Vietnamese ancestors annexed Champa and Kampuchea Krom in the past. If the CPP leaders, especially Hun Sen, Heng Samrin, and Chea Sim do not protect and take care of the illegal Vietnamese their political and non-political lives would not be pleasant, especially vis-୶is their Vietnamese bosses because history showed many times before that any Vietnamese pawns who did not obey Hanoi's orders never escaped punishment. For this reason, it can be said that the CPP leaders have inextricably bogged themselves down in the policy of perpetual servitude toward the Vietnamese.

Let alone the CPP, particularly the three Governors General (the three Samdech), who cannot free themselves from the steel dragnet of the Vietnamese, but Yu Hokkri and Prince Ranariddh also sided with the CPP in legitimizing the Vietnamese immigrants.

When FUNCINPEC was still a resistance movement, it had three main principles: to drive out the foreign bandits and their lackeys, to fight corruption, and to defend territorial integrity. These three principles, however, have been completely trampled underfoot by the FUNCINPEC leaders after FUNCINPEC joined the coalition government with the group of former Khmer Rouge servants of Vietnam, namely, the CPP since 1993. Prince Ranariddh himself when he was first prime minister in the first term and speaker of the National Assembly in the second term and the first half of the third term was intoxicated by power. He consented to give up the supreme principles of the FUNCINPEC Party and connived with the CPP in blindly serving the policy of Vietnam. Prince Ranariddh and Yu Hokkri not only trampled on the three principles, their satellite party even helped to legalize the CPP's signing of the supplemental treaty, which cut off Cambodia's land, waters, vales, and mounts and effortlessly handed them to Vietnam.

Now that his luck ran out, Prince Ranariddh lost all his positions of power and was forced to flee abroad, leaving behind wife and children, daring not to return to the country. Likewise, Yu Hokkri has been expelled from the FUNCINPEC Party and is left wondering what would soon happen to him next. These persons now feign patriotism by raising a ruckus about the Vietnamese immigrants, the border problem, and corruption.

The opposition party officials and the Cambodian people say that Samdech Krom Preah [Ranariddh] and his sycophants are the ones who have betrayed the principles, who are corrupt, who have stomped on democracy and territorial integrity, who sold national independence to foreign countries, and who have bowed their heads to become the lackeys of the Vietnamese puppets. For this reason, the people say that the vociferation by Prince Ranariddh and Yu Hokkri about fighting corruption and resolving the Vietnamese immigrants issue is just a plaintive whimpering of the men before they fall out of the political arena. Theirs is not a rallying cry for the salvation of the nation and people.

Those who would really save the country and the people from Vietnam's colonialist yoke once and for all are the democrats led by the SRP. One point in the SRP's 10-point program for the SRP government to implement after 2008 deals with enforcing the Immigration Law. The SRP government will surely be effective in enforcing this Immigration Law because the SRP does not owe Vietnam anything, unlike the CPP officials. The SRP is indebted toward only the Cambodian nation and people. For this reason, the SRP is doing everything despite countless big and small obstacles erected by the Vietnamese lackeys in the cause of the nation and people.

The Vietnamese lackeys are aware that their group's dishonest policy of keeping millions of illegal Vietnamese immigrants in Cambodia is not good for the masters of the country. But they still try with difficulty because they have no other choices since their bosses have deployed experts and agents all around them who keep an eye on them everyday. If they dare to let any secret leak out that they want to deviate just a little bid from the line traced by Vietnam, they would share the fate of former Prime Minister Chan Si.

Contrary to the CPP, the SRP owes Vietnam nothing, not even a cent. Therefore, the duty of the SRP is to salvage Cambodia and free it from the Vietnamese yoke of slavery, turn this country into a fully independent country, liberate the people from bondage brought on by the power of the dishonest politicians among the CPP leaders, and turn them into true masters of an independent, sovereign, and self-determining country, thus once and for all wiping away the domination influence of the aggressor Vietnamese bandits.

Brief, this is not the time for Prince Ranariddh and Yu Hokkri to do the shouting, yelling, vociferating to extol their skin-deep theory of patriotism when their group is already half buried in the ground. Prince Ranariddh and his group are making noise before they are gone for good and, thereby, what they are shouting is useless. The party that can liberate Cambodia from a dictatorial regime, corruption, and servitude toward Vietnam, the party that can really effectively enforce the Immigration Law is none other than the SRP.

Human Right Report

Cambodia Office of the HighCommissioner for Human Rights
Special Representative of the Secretary-General
for human rights in Cambodia

The Special Representative of the Secretary-General for human rights in Cambodia, Mr. Yash Ghai, concludes his fourth official visit to Cambodia

Click here to read the document in Khmer
Phnom Penh 10 December 2007 - The Special Representative of the Secretary-General for human rights in Cambodia, Yash Ghai, concluded his fourth official visit to Cambodia today. The purpose of the visit was for the Special Representative to update himself on recent developments in advance of preparation of his next report to the United Nations Human Rights Council which will focus on the issues of rule of law and access to justice.
The Special Representative regrets that no members of the Royal Government of Cambodia were available to meet with him during the mission. The Special Representative is aware that he has been criticized by the Government for not taking its version of events sufficiently into account in his reports and presenting a view which it considers overly sympathetic to the Government’s critics. In advance of this mission, meetings were requested with the Prime Minister, the Ministers of the Interior, Agriculture and Justice, the Co-Chairs of the Council for Legal and Judicial Reform, as well as the Chairman of the Government’s Human Rights Committee. None of these meetings materialized. It is difficult to see how the Government’s criticism of the Special Representative can be sustained, when it declines all opportunities to present its view. Nevertheless, the Special Representative remains willing to meet with the Government to discuss the human rights situation in Cambodia in a spirit of impartiality and openness.
During his stay, Mr. Ghai was able to meet with representatives of civil society, political parties, members of the legal profession, Cambodian and International Judges at the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia, United Nations agencies and the diplomatic community.
The Special Representative paid particular attention to the courts, the legal profession, and the prison system. He focused on the extent to which these institutions meet international norms and are able to uphold the rule of law and protect the rights of Cambodian citizens, especially vulnerable and disadvantaged groups. The Special Representative examined some aspects of criminal procedure. He looked in some detail at the Extraordinary Chambers of the Courts of Cambodia, as much for their expected contribution to raising criminal procedure standards—and awareness of these standards amongst the general public—as for their contribution to ending impunity for human rights atrocities committed by the Khmer Rouge from 1975 to 1979.
Mr. Ghai sought to obtain an in-depth understanding of the issues of housing evictions and land disputes, especially cases alleged to involve the unfair acquisition of land from communities. He traveled to Rattanakiri to obtain first-hand information on land disputes in the province and meet with community activists and their lawyers, as well as court and provincial government officials. He also paid a visit to the prison in Banlung to get a sense of the conditions in which prisoners are kept, and of the resources made available to the prison administration.
The Special Representative visited the Phnom Penh communities of Dey Krahorm and Group 78 who face the threat of being forced from their homes. He was deeply distressed to see the conditions in which people live, even in the heart of the capital city, and to learn of the fears of those faced with imminent eviction. The Special Representative regrets that his earlier recommendations for more equitable procedures to protect the rights of vulnerable groups had not been acted upon. State authorities as well as companies and politically well-connected individuals show scant respect for the law. This unprincipled approach to law has undermined the foundations of the rule of law.
It is not for the Special Representative to pronounce on the merits of cases before the courts. But it is very striking to note the people’s lack of trust in those courts. People have little faith that they will get justice even if their case is heard. Ironically, even the rich and powerful apparently have little faith or patience – for they often meet legal claims with counter-charges of defamation or incitement, rather than allow the normal legal process to take its course. The Special Representative is gravely concerned at recent attempts to place restrictions of the ability of lawyers to represent their clients’ best interests. In particular, the charges of incitement against legal aid lawyers represent an unwarranted attempt to criminalize the lawful activities of lawyers.
The courts and the legal profession have, or should have, a key role in protecting the rights of citizens. It is a cardinal principle that all are equal before the law. In reality, all countries face challenges in living up to the ideal. But in Cambodia that shortfall seems to have the proportions of a gulf. The system has failed the people of Cambodia woefully.
The Special Representative has been struck by the extent to which non-governmental organizations’ space for action has been restricted in recent months. He heard many complaints of increased executive interference. This makes it harder for these bodies to play their own important role in upholding the rule of law – a role made even more important given the official court system’s ineffectiveness in protecting rights. The NGO sector is not alone in living with fear and a sense of repression by an almost all-powerful executive.
The appropriation of land and evictions are sometimes justified as making way for “development”. The reality seems to be that the poverty of some is worsened, while the wealth of others grows apace. The legal system seems to be the tool of the rich and the powerful, while the poor are further impoverished as the courts show no willingness to take a stand against manipulation and bribery.
These matters are not for Cambodians alone. The international community plays a very important role in the country. It is not enough to say “we must not interfere”. It already “interferes” by its support for development projects, and its very significant financial support for the government’s budget. The United Nations and the international community have an obligation to ensure that the system they are supporting does not violated the very norms that the international community purports to stand for.
On a more positive note, the Special Representative is pleased that the long-awaited Codes of Penal and Civil Procedure have finally entered into force and hopes that the implementation of the new procedures will provide an opportunity for the courts to apply international standards of justice in accordance with Cambodia’s international obligations. Laws alone are not enough of course. The Special Representative hopes that the authorities will allow the law to be used to convict the guilty. Similarly, it is not for lack of laws that Born Samnang and Sok Sam Oeun were convicted and remain in detention, despite convincing evidence that they are not guilty of the murder of Chea Vichea.
He also welcomes the recent accelerated progress at the Extraordinary Chambers. At the same time, certain developments, including the re-assignment by the Executive branch of government of one judge to another post and the allegations of corrupt recruitment practices, are causes for concern. The Special Representative hopes that the ECCC, as an integral part of the Cambodian court system, will strictly apply international standards and thereby set a positive example to be followed in the domestic courts. He discussed with judges and officials ways in which to make this a reality so that the ECCC positively influences the consciousness of the people as well as the functioning of the legal system. He feels, however, that the effectiveness of the ECCC in terms of ending impunity will be blunted if it limits its proceedings to a politically-agreed number of individuals.
The Special Representative will issue his next report early in 2008 and will present it to the Human Rights Council in Geneva in March 2008.

mercredi, décembre 12, 2007

Who Will Succeed Professor Long Seam ?

News from Cambodia N° 0747-E


Khemara Jati
Montreal, Quebec
December 12th, 2007

An inscription, in Sanskrit and in ancient Cambodian dating the reign of Udayaditiyavarman II 1050-1066 (Udaya Aditiya Varman = Rising Sun Defender), was discovered in 1990, in Nokor Reachsima, the central province of current Thailand. This registration was soon translated into English by the Thai professor, Chirapat Prapandvidya, and published in “The Journal of Siam Society”, Volume 78, Part 2, 1990. Thank to Professor Ang Choulean for translating it into modern Cambodian the sentence concerning of the Cambodian's patriotism of the beginning of the XIIth century, the sentence which attract our attention on this passage.

(Excerpt from :

1/. This discovery shows that the Angkor civilization extended its supremacy over the totality of the civilized Thailand of the time. Still there is no serious study on this Angkor civilization history in Thailand which lasted over several centuries. Recently there was a map of Cambodia drawn by American, supplied by satellite, concerning the occupation of the land during Angkor era. This map confirms completely the results of the archaeological excavations of Bernard Philippe Groslier and deposited in his immortal article “The Hydraulic Town of Angkor: Exploitation or Overexploitation of the Ground?” Published in the Bulletin of the Ecole Française d’Extrême-Orient, of 1979. Before 1970, B. P. Groslier is the only one who makes the real archaeological excavations in Cambodia. For him, it is necessary to confront written documents with the archaeological excavations. Because before him the archaeology consisted in inventorying visible parts and then describing them. Also let us mention that before 1990s, there was no Cambodian archaeologist. Now there are true archaeological excavations which reveal the past of our history even further than the period of Fou Nan. The results of these excavations are always written in foreign language. It is also necessary to note that Groslier tries to place our history in the international trades of time.

Regrettably the foreign historians prefer explain the abandon of Angkor by a certain Bruno Dagen, a historian who has never made any slightest archaeological research in Cambodia. According to Dagen, the weakness of Angkor lie in the megalomania of the kings (sic)! Another well known historian of Cambodia : Claude Jacques, in the magazine Science et Vie N° 201 of December 1997, wonders and asks what the hydraulic system of Angkor is using for? For the king's enjoyment ? At least, not for the agriculture (sic)! We will come back on the errors in the other history books of Cambodia, written by foreigners. It is curious to note that the foreigners do not love the papers of the eminent historian of Cambodia Bernard Philippe Groslier in the point to ignore his name during the recent inauguration of the immense monument in Baphuon mountain. We wish that Cambodians who like to know our history consult and study the B. P. Groslier's papers. His most important articles are gathered binded by his co-worker Jacques Dumarçay in the book called “Mixture on Cambodia's archaeology” Edition Ecole Française d'Extrême Orient, Paris 1997. It is also important to read his very interesting biography by Georges Condominas and the other collections on him, in particular his serious desire in the restoration of Baphuon, in the book “Disciplines Croisées Hommage à Bernard Philippe Groslier”, Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales, Paris 1988.

Unfortunately the map mentioned ealier is limited only to the part occupied by the current Cambodia. It is recommended to have also such a map for a part occupied by the current Thailand. Until now only Bernard Philippe Groslier alone who contributed to the Angkor monuments restoration in Thailand, had the idea but without having had the time to concretize the project. Maybe there are documents on this subject in the archives? Regrettably, his archives are still inaccessible or with very difficulty accessible.

2/. In Thailand there are scholars capable to read and translate Angkor scriptures into Thai, English and even into modern Cambodian. In Cambodia, except our regretted Long Seam, who is able of doing it so much? Nowadays, are there Cambodians able to translate the Angkor transcriptions into modern Cambodian ? Are we already dependent of the Thai professors, in the intellectual, cultural and linguistic point of vue ? A daughter of the of Thailand is considered as the one who knows our language very well. She knows perfectly the history of her country and also all the Angkor monuments in Thailand and in Cambodia as well. An information to be meditated. Also let us note that in the Thai archives, many documents of Angkor era are still inaccessible for foreigners.

Many Cambodians earn a lot of money and are multimillionaires in term of dollars and euros. Why do not they finance Cambodians to study history in universities and not supervised by the known historians of Cambodia, to form professors of the Thai professors level? Because to understand our history, it is necessary to love our country and her people like B.P. Groslier. Cambodian students also have to learn first of historian's profession and all the history of the world, before approaching the history of our country. Otherwise is it necessary to spend time only waiting for the good will of major powers? Or only enjoy reading history books of our country written by foreigners? Books which show only our weaknesses? Do not forget a saying says that “Help yourself first, God will help you”.

In Cambodia, there was Professor Long Seam who has a great honor and deserves to publish the first "Dictionary of the Ancient Khmer", where the ancient writing is translated into modern writing. In this dictionary we admire the aesthetic beauty of our ancient and modern writing.

When we travel to China and to Japan, there are only Chinese or Japanese letters of all dimensions, in the daytime and at the night as well. In Cambodia, we seem to be ashamed to spread or show our very beautiful and very aesthetic writing. Why? In Cambodian films also, we see our writing very little or even practically none of them !

3/. Richer says that our writing is difficult to learn. Why the Europeans and Anglo-Saxons, more and more numerous, do they begin learning the Chinese and Japanese ideograms which are thousand times more complicated than our writing? We will come back on the attempts of romanising our writing and the current romanisation using by the Ecole Française d’Extrême-Orient.

We wish that soon many other Cambodian Professors of Long Seam quality will quickly relieve and give to Cambodia the high-level Professors, capable and able of providing us translations with modern Cambodian, all ancients inscriptions and at the same time begins to edit and writing our history which is closest possible of the reality. A national history is always written by the historians of this nation. To trust totally the history books written by foreigners is to confide and entrust our future to the decisions of the foreigners. It does not mean that all these books of history are to be thrown or rejected. But it is necessary to know how to sort out and extract information, often without knowing the author, which are interesting for our history? Because most of the time we have no access to certain archives besides them. We will elaborate on this subject in another article. Until now no any historian takes into account the Portuguese arrival in our region following by the coming of other Europeans, since the port of Malacca has been seized in 1511. Since this date until nowadays all the history of the world is displease.

4/. The wish to be reborn (reincarnated) Cambodian is also mentioned in Boun Chan Mol’s book “Kouk Nyaubay”. To enjoy with such a wish is it enough to release our country of the vietnamese domination? Because a wish remains always a wish. The most important are to unite together in order to structure organizations capable of realizing and understanding that Long Seam is not the only one who understands the cultural importance of our inheritance. The experience of the history of the world shows that the writing is a fundamental factor to assure and insure the perpetuity of a culture and a nation as well. The dance, the pagoda, the monument, etc. are only the visible parts of iceberg of the cultural matter. The immense invisible part of the iceberg is the paper, the writing. All the history of the humanity confirms it. Since six thousand years, all the historians say that the man is conscious of the history with the birth of the writing. q

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dimanche, décembre 09, 2007

Cambodians sick of their language

News of Cambodia N° 0746-E


Khemara Jati
Montreal, Quebec
December 9th, 2007

We diffuse below an article about our language by Denis Richer in his interview with Cambodge Soir Hebdo N°9 / Year 1 of november 29th, 2007 pages 5 and 6. François Ponchaud also wrote an article on our language. Richer and Ponchaud uttered rather relevant criticisms on our language but both give no credible solution to remedy it.

It is true that many Cambodians ignore our language's wealth as Richer noted it so well. It is not new, already before 1970, during a debate on the radio, Keng Vansak complained about our language's poverty. But respectable Chuon Nath, author of the first dictionary of the Cambodian language, replies right away by saying that the Cambodian language is very rich, but many Cambodians ignore it. Nowadays there is a very well done Cambodian-English dictionary : « Modern Cambodian - English Dictionary » of Robert K. Headley Jr ., Rath Chinn and Ok Soeum published by Dunwoody Press, Kensington, Maryland, the USA, on 1997 and now a «Dictionary Cambodian -French » well documented of Father Rodineau. These dictionaries are intended to translate from Cambodian into English or into French. They are not intended to translate from English or from French into Cambodian. They are not either intended for the Cambodians who ignore our language. Yet for the moment there is no another project to publish a serious English-Cambodian or French-Cambodian dictionary. These dictionaries do not answer to the interests of major powers. No any rich Cambodian or no any group of Cambodians thinks of doing it either. Choun Nath dictionary still remains the only dictionary of this kind. There are efforts of some of our fellow countrymen to add to it the new words.

« About the words of a language. It is indisputable that there are mutual exchanges between neighbors and also words coming by far. » Michel Antelme (Of French Father and Cambodian mother).

Richer seems ignoring an important characteristic of our language, often ignored by foreigners. It is about all the harmony and the wealth of sounds. Cambodians have an innate sense of the visual and auditive beauty. This innate artistic capacity was felt by the American of Swedish origin Ingrid Muan, regrettably dead in a mysterious death in 2002 at 40 years old. Under her impulse, she created the Reyum Institute and developed the art everywhere of the word and also the Cambodian language. After her death, Reyum decays.

It is necessary to note that the former Cambodian texts are written in verse and sung by reading. How many Cambodians do they now know how to read texts written on leaves ? How to translate « Meul Phnom Thom Theng Reng Roleuk » in another language? In the prose of many Cambodian writers there are poetic and musical images at the same time, impossible to translate into another language. Fortunately there are still Cambodian writers who still know how to use the poetic and musical wealth, the image's harmony and the sound to describe at the same time a landscape and a profound sentiment evoked by the image.

There is also a wealth of accents. The melodious accent of Siem Reap, probably expressing about our angkorian ancestors, is very known and appreciated by all fellow countrymen. A Cambodian of Phnom Penh married a woman of Siem Reap. He asks to his wife to insult him with the accent of her province. Because the Siem Reap speaking is so melodious that even the insults are pleasant to hear and listen. The inhabitants of Siem Reap say that the Cambodians of Phnom Penh speak as a barking dog. Is this accent of Siem Reap going to disappear with the foreigner's influx? If it is the case, it will really be pity. It is a loss of a part of our cultural patrimony.

What it is dangerous is that Richer already thinks of romanising our language! The romanisation of the vietnamese language was invented by the Jesuit Alexandre de Rhodes in 1650. But it was generalized by the colonial regime, that at about the 1920s, to remove the vietnamese culture of the chinese culture. If Cambodia loses her writing, she will also lose her cultural identity. Our writing was invented in the VIth century and it is the most ancient writing of our region. We should never forget that. It is to cut for ever, our fellow countrymen, of the writings on stone, our old manuscripts then of our cultural roots. So under pretext to help us, do not try to cut us of our past? Of our history?

Our regretted scholar Long Seam worked hard, with a weak salary, by means of the Toyota foundation, in order to give birth the invaluable first one « Dictionary of the Ancient Khmer » (Printed by Phnom Penh Printing House, 2000) when for the first time the writing of ancient Cambodian has the honor to appear without a dictionary. It is necessary to insist that our manuscripts on stone are still never translated into modern Cambodian. Then how to wonder that our fellow countrymen ignore their history?

* *

About the new words. Let us remind that during the translation of the Arabic books into Latin, one had to either uses the Arabic words as « algebra » or invent the others. Nowadays the scholars invent every day of the new words which later on will become common words. It is normal. Cambodians have already used the word « sabou » for soap, the word « butters » etc. We have already adopted the word « computer » for computer. Of course we tried to impose a learned word for « train », but the people adopted « roteas phleung » or « rot phleung ». So after all it is the people who impose her vocabulary in the ordinary language.

It is normal that there are mutual exchanges in the language as well as in the meal for example. Michel Antelme is a specialist of the mutual exchanges between the Cambodian and the Thai languages. There is no another specialist for the Cambodian and Vietnamese languages.

« The Vietnamese is a rather homogeneous language; there are only two dialects, that of the North which has six tones, and that of the South which has only five. » (in « the languages of the humanity » by Michel Malherbe, Ed. Seghers, Paris 1983, page 251). Is not this decrease of the number of tones due to the influence of the Cambodian language, the language without tone ?

« As the Korean, the vietnamese language can use two systems of numeration, but if the one is diverted from the Chinese, the other one is diverted from the Khmer » (idem page 252). For example the word « Av » for cloth to cover the height of the body, is of Cambodian origin (Claude Hagège). In the Vietnamese cook point of view, that of the South is much different from that of the North. It is necessary to know that Cambodians who invented and made « Noum Banhchok », vermicelli made from the rice flour. The Japanese enjoyed it for the first time in Oudong. And they called them « Oudong ». Thus all the dishes containing this « Noum Banhchok », like « Bo Buong » is of Cambodian origin. As the dish known under the name of « Nem » is only of Chinese by-product dish used in Hanoi and modified by Cambodians. In a broadcast report, the Vietnamese of Prey Nokor said that the Vietnamese kitchen is very influenced by the Indian kitchen, for not to say Cambodian.

« For more sophistication, the Juan, in the first floor of Montreux Palace, serves as these excellent « World food », at the same time French, delicately Khmer and lemonic. Try it to discover a new art of new style cooking. » (In Paris Match of August 15th, 2002, page 97-98, in an entitled article « In Switzerland, Weekend on the Lake Geneva, with Berthe Morisot ». The traditional Cambodian kitchen is very fine and uses a big quantity of aromatic plants. Regrettably it is very long and difficult to prepare. Unfortunately there are few rich Cambodians who run a restaurant with a true Cambodian kitchen. The Thai preparation is only of the very bad Cambodian kitchen with a lot of hot chilis.

In the language point of view, Richer compares our current society to that of Europe of the Middle Age. It's true. But, how Europe evolved? It is mainly because of the printing office invention. It is the printing office which dethroned the Latin by developing the vernacular languages, the preludes in the births of the European nations nowadays. By diffusing books the printing office allows the numerous university and private libraries to grow up and expand. The knowledge is within the reach of a people growing number. The Latin, then the translations, allowed the European scholars to communicate each other and then to know all the innovations and the discoveries. We quote an example concerning the astronomy's development.

The first expedition around the world is begun by Fernand de Magellan (1480-1521): Started in August 1519 and ended by the Basque El Cano on September 8th, 1522. This journey confirms the sphericity of the earth, suspected since the antiquity. By consulting the ship's log, the crew notices one day of delay between the Spanish calendar and that of the expedition.

The Polish scholar Copernic (1473-1543) draws the conclusion which the earth turns on itself in 24 hours and not to undergo the Vatican's lightning, publish some months before his death his famous treaty where, for the first time he demonstrates the rotation of the earth and the other planets on themselves and the rotations of the earth and the other planets around the sun. This system is completely against the Christian religion of that time.

The navigation develops and its security depends on the determination of the position the most exact possible on the ground sphere. From where the cartography and also the astronomy are developed. After Copernic, it is the German Johannes Kepler (1571-1630). Basing on the very precise measures of his boss, Dane Tycho de Brahé (1546-1601) who for the first time expresses the laws on the orbit's form of planets around the sun and on the connections between the characteristics of these orbits and its revolution time around the sun. Later the Englishman Isaac Newton (1642-1727) confirm by his Gravitation's theory the laws envisaged by Kepler by the only astronomical measures. The German Albert Einstein (1879-1955) invents the theory of relativity which comes to strengthen Newton's theory and which so far is accepted by astronomical measure.

The word is as useful as timing belt to transmit knowledge from generation to generation. But the information tends to get lost. The paper (writing) serves for passing on the knowledge more durably, but also through the space and with the translations between the peoples, although only for the small minority who knows how to read and write. With the printing office, the number of the people who know how to read and write increases in a considerable way. The printing office also favors the development of the popular languages which become national languages. By the translations, the knowledge's exchange and the inventions between the peoples of Europe develop. It is what allows Western Europe to dominate gradually the world.

The Russian czar Pierre 1st le Grand (1672-1725) is the first one who understands that the Western Europe power lies in its knowledge. He is the first Russian czar who introduces this knowledge in Russia through translations. He also understood that the European power also lies in the importance of its ports and its navy. He thus created the Saint-Petersburg’s port, built on a swamp. Nowadays the Russian navy always uses the codes promulgated by Pierre le Grand. The czarina Catherine II le Grand (born in Germany in 1729, czarina 1762-1796) continued Pierre le Grand's work. All the big names of the literature, the music and the Russian culture dated after this time. After the collapse of the napoleonic Grande Army in his Russia Campaign (1812), the russian army scrolls in Paris after Waterloo (in June 18th, 1815). Leon Tolstoï (1828-1910) described in a kind of novel way this first big Russian victory on a powerful western army. Hitler will make the same error during the Second World War (1939-1945).

* *

The second country to understand the importance of the translations of the chief works of the western civilization is Japan of Meiji's era (from 1868).

From 1894 the Japanese armies defeat the Chinese armies in Korea then in Manchuria. By the treaty of Shimonoseki (in April 17th, 1895), China accept to give to Japan the following territory : Korea, province of Lioadong with Port Arthur and Dalian, Taiwan and Pescadores islands. Then Japan wins the war against Russia on land and at sea by destroying the Russian fleet of the Baltic commanded in the battle of Tsushima, between Korea and Japan, in 1905.

China has followed Japan, after its defeat in front of Japan and begin to translate into Chinese the chief works of the western culture. The birth of the Chinese national anthem problem is marked by the proclamation of the Republic of China, on January 1st, 1912, at Nankin, by Sun Yat-Sen (1866-1925). He is considered as the father of modern China. He is one of the first two doctors from the Faculty of Medicine of Hong-Kong. He gets married, on October 25th, 1915, in Japan with Soong Ching-ling. She (in January 27th May 1893-16th, 1981 in Peking) is from a rich bourgeois family. She is one of the first Chinese women who study in the United States. She was the first Chinese woman aviator. Even during the Cultural revolution, there is in Peking a team of Chinese and foreign translators to translate among others books of the world culture into Chinese, among which shakespeare's complete works. In the China towns, there was an encyclopedia in several bound volumes (approximately 1000 pages on the whole) of sciences and techniques.

Let us return to our country concern. Richer notices the poverty of our spoken language and even more the language spoken by our farmers at the villages. He estimated at approximately 350 words. And Ponchaud reproach in the lack of abstract words. Indeed! How to remedy it? Such is the fundamental question put to our fellow countrymen.

I/. At first, it is necessary to enrich the language spoken by our farmers. How? By making facility for our farmers to journey towards cities as in all the countries of the world which begin to develop. It is thus necessary, immediately to build good roads inside our country, to connect cities between them and connect cities with villages, especially with cities and villages situated near our borders.

But look how Japan, Australia, South Korea and the United States help us:

A/. Develop industrial areas on our borders and to build good roads in order to facilitate the communications for persons as well as for the good transportation of our border provinces with our neighbors ?

B/. Build electric lines with high tension coming from our neighbors to electrify our border provinces and even more inside ? Every body knows that the energy independence is one of the fundamental conditions of our political independence. All the developed countries watch scrupulously their energy independence.

C/. Japan is transforming our provinces of the Northeast to be closely connected with Vietnam. The hydroelectric dams are built by the Vietnamese. Roads, even highways are built from West to East so that our wealth are exported by Vietnamese ports ?

The struggles to release our country of the Vietnamese domination are not only of political order. They are cultural, linguistic, economic, etc. as well.

Only trust on the major power's advices is to agree beforehand to subordinate totally our national interests to the chance and credibility of these major powers conflict interests. In that case how can we build strong national unity to support this current struggle against the vietnamization of Cambodia?

People who rejects her language, thus her culture's perpetuity; who relies only on the Cambodia history books written by foreigners, who ignores the history of her country; who makes little case of the economic problems, who thus ignores our dependence already important for the economic and energy point of view towards our neighbors and more particularly towards Vietnam. How in these conditions can we gather us to free our country from the dependence of Vietnam which is growing in all the points of view? Just denouncing the vietnamese domination alone, is it enough ?

II/. Enrich the vocabulary of People living in the cities. How? It is necessary to do as all the developed countries of the world did, including at our neighbours. To enrich our vocabulary is to translate into Cambodian language of the fundamental books of the culture which are globalized. The vocabulary are also globalized. First the scientific words which are the same in all languages. To defend the world French-speaking Richer recommends the creation of the French words to replace the English words. But who uses, for example, the word « toile » for Internet? The word « weekend » is not already used by the French people? The word « Parking » for example ? Cambodians already use « computer" for « computer » and « bye bye » at the time of leaving etc. The Indonesians and the Malays use the « mathematica » while the Cambodians use the word « Kanittsas » etc. It is necessary to know that the mathematical equations are the same in all the languages.

Thus in order to enrich our language, we need:

1/. The good English-Cambodian, French-Cambodian dictionaries using the maximum of Cambodian words which are already existing.

2/. Translations into Cambodian of the fundamental works of the world culture and also important novels universally known, by using, if it needs, the foreign word when there is no corresponding Cambodian word. It is in that way when the first translations were made in all the developed countries of the world at the beginning, like in Russia, in Japan and in China for example. The Vietnamese have vietnamised the Chinese words.

3/. Develop the Cambodian language in the university level in all the concern materials, in particular, scientists. It is the way working in all the developed countries. The university education in Cambodian favors the scientific books popularization publication for the children and the Cambodian people. It is the only way so that the intellectuals and the people speak about the same language. It is what taking place in all the developed countries in the world.

Already more than 90 % of the Cambodians abroad of less than 40 years old do not speak our language any more. More than 90 % of Cambodian families abroad, do not speak any more Cambodian at home. How many Cambodians of the following generation will remain Cambodian culturally? In these conditions, how can these Cambodians living abroad participate in the development of our country? Are not they already lost in the multiform struggles to free our country of the foreigners, particularly the vietnamese domination?